Attention as inference: selection is probabilistic; responses are all-or-none samples.
Theories of probabilistic cognition postulate that internal representations are made up of multiple simultaneously held hypotheses, each with its own probability of being correct (henceforth, "probability distributions"). However, subjects make discrete responses and report the phenomenal contents of their mind to be all-or-none states rather than graded probabilities. How can these 2 positions be reconciled? Selective attention tasks, such as those used to study crowding, the attentional blink, rapid serial visual presentation, and so forth, were recast as probabilistic inference problems and used to assess how graded, probabilistic representations may produce discrete subjective states. The authors asked subjects to make multiple guesses per trial and used 2nd-order statistics to show that (a) visual selective attention operates in a graded fashion in time and space, selecting multiple targets to varying degrees on any given trial; and (b) responses are generated by a process of sampling from the probabilistic states that result from graded selection. The authors concluded that although people represent probability distributions, their discrete responses and conscious states are products of a process that samples from these probabilistic representations.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is known as nonlinear and time variant load that causes power quality (PQ) problems such as, current, voltage and current harmonics, voltage flicker, frequency changes in power system. One of the most important problems to study the EAF behavior is the choice of a suitable model for this load. Hence, in this paper, a probabilistic three-phase model is proposed base...متن کامل
The idea of probabilistic metric space was introduced by Menger and he showed that probabilistic metric spaces are generalizations of metric spaces. Thus, in this paper, we prove some of the important features and theorems and conclusions that are found in metric spaces. At the beginning of this paper, the distance distribution functions are proposed. These functions are essential in defining p...متن کامل
Today's with the increasing development of distributed energy resources, power system analysis has been entered a new level of attention. Since the majority of these types of energy resources are affected by environmental conditions, the uncertainty in the power system has been expanded; so probabilistic analysis has become more important. Among the various methods of probabilistic analysis, po...متن کامل
In this paper an epistemological model of learning fields of probabilistic events is formalized. It is used to explain resource allocation governed by pervasive complementarities as the sign of unity of knowledge. Such an episteme is induced epistemologically into interacting, integrating and evolutionary variables representing the problem at hand. The end result is the formalization of a p...متن کامل
Pathology of Medical Responses to Attention Deficit Disorder - Overactivity in Criminal Policy Approach
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder in childhood. It is characterized by three levels of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and compounding. The most dangerous situation is when so-called "comorbiditychr('39') is associated with one or more other mental disorders. If this involuntary disorder (Lack of control over activity and impulses) is not tr...متن کامل