Reference frames in reading: evidence from visually and memory-guided saccades
In order to examine the frames of reference used for the planning of inter- and intra-word saccades, subjects were required to execute a two-saccade sequence toward one or two words. The first saccade was visually guided while the second saccade was visually or memory-guided. Results demonstrate that readers hold an internal representation of the target word in at least two different reference frames that are specific to the action to be performed: to aim for a new target word or to read it over with a second fixation. When a word is selected as a target for the next saccade, the spatial location of the second word is stored in memory. Then, the second saccade is updated with respect to the current eye position in the first word in order to aim a functional target location in the second word that is the word's center. When the second saccade is directed within the fixated word, the saccadic system uses the intrinsic features of the word to code a fixed-motor vector relative to the word's length. Our present results demonstrate that readers hold an internal representation of the saccade target in different reference frames specific to the action performed on the word.
Memory-guided saccades are slower than visually guided saccades. The usual explanation for this slowing is that the absence of a visual drive reduces the discharge of neurons in the superior colliculus. We tested a related hypothesis: that the slowing of memory-guided saccades was due also to the more frequent occurrence of gaze-evoked blinks with memory-guided saccades compared with visually g...متن کامل
In a series of now classic experiments, an output structure of the basal ganglia (BG)--the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)--was shown to be involved in the generation of saccades made in particular behavioral contexts, such as when memory was required for guidance. Recent electrophysiological experiments, however, call this original hypothesis into question. Here we test the hypothesis t...متن کامل
Spatial memory following shifts of gaze. I. Saccades to memorized world-fixed and gaze-fixed targets.
During a shift of gaze, an object can move along with gaze or stay fixed in the world. To examine the effect of an object's reference frame on spatial working memory, we trained monkeys to memorize locations of visual stimuli as either fixed in the world or fixed to gaze. Each trial consisted of an initial reference frame instruction, followed by a peripheral visual flash, a memory-period gaze ...متن کامل
•The extent to which infants combine visual (i e, retinal position) and nonvisual (eye or head position) spatial information in planning saccades relates to the issue of what spatial frame or frames of reference influence early visually guided action We explored this question hy testing infants from 4 to 6 months of age on the doublestep saccade paradigm, which has shown that adults combine vis...متن کامل
Eye movements in monkeys with local dopamine depletion in the caudate nucleus. II. Deficits in voluntary saccades.
Unilateral infusion of MPTP into the monkey caudate nucleus produced deficits in task-specific saccades, in addition to the deficits in spontaneous eye movements (preceding article). We trained three monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade tasks: (1) saccade task for eliciting visually guided saccades and (2) delayed saccade task for eliciting memory-guided saccades. After the MPTP infusion, do...متن کامل