Clinically significant and non significant prostate cancer an ongoing question.
One of the most important problems in urological practice is how to differentiate clinically significant and non significant prostate cancer (Pca) i.e. how to avoid over treatment of tumors with low malignant potential in one hand, and inappropriate less aggressive treatment of significant tumors, on the other hand. At the first place, one should estimate precise local clinical stage and the grade of the disease. Transrectal ultrasound--guided prostate biopsy id the golden standard, but there are few dilemmas concerning prostate biopsy: the number of biopsy cores, inter and intra-observer variations in the grading, the significance of PIN, multifocal character of Pca etc. Our opinion is that sextant or octan biopsy is quite sufficient for the exact detection of clinically insignificant cancers. An additional problem is the discrepancy in grade between biopsy and radical prosatectomy specimen. Second, the treatment should not be the same for every patient and it is guided by the age and general condition of the patient. The aggressive treatment is recommendable for younger patients, younger than 70-72 years, even for tiny area of cancer in one of the biopsy samples. On the other hand, it is an ethical question, should we insist on detection of small cancer foci at older patients, and make them anxious and unhappy in their last years of life.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the world. Growth, maintenance and the expression of genes involved in the production of steroids, may alter the susceptibility of prostate cancer. One such gene, CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and i...متن کامل
Association between rs2735839 and Serum Prostate-specific Antigen Level Regarding Risk of Prostate Cancer in Iranian Population
Background and Objective: Prostate cancer is among the five common cancers in males. It is second cancer in terms of the age-standardized rate (ASR) (ASR=16.6) in Iran. The rs2735839 G/A, an intergenic polymorphism is located on chromosome 19q13.33 at 600 base pairs of the KLK3 gene untranslatable region. This gene which codes prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used in the screening and diagnos...متن کامل
Background & Objective: Prostate cancer is a compound condition in which gene expression has altered. Several surveys have revealed that genetic components have been involved in prostate cancer progression. Findings proposed that they can modify a noteworthy portion of disposing of elements, which is associated to the developing prostate cancer in protein coding sequences. The purpose of this r...متن کامل
Background: Prostate cancer is the second form of cancer among men worldwide. For early cancer detection, we should identify tumors in initial stages before the physical signs become visible. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), its comparison with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in prostate cancer screening and also in patients with localized ...متن کامل
Background: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the world. Immunotherapy is a new, non-invasive and effective method for the treatment of cancer, but its side effects on the normal flora of bacteria and opportunistic infections not known yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of immunotherapy on Ent...متن کامل