Inflammation in the bovine female reproductive tract.
Inflammation of the reproductive tract of a cow occurs when the physical and functional barriers to contamination are breached or specific infection occurs. Commonly, contamination occurs at parturition and to a lesser extent at estrus. Uterine contamination following calving is common, but most healthy cows are able to clear the uterus of bacteria in the first 2 to 3 wk after calving. Persistent infections are more likely to be caused by Actinomyces pyogenes. Specific venereal infections tend to be more host-adapted and produce a lower grade inflammation. Nonspecific bacterial contamination of the endometrium generally induces a neutrophilic influx into the stratum compactum and uterine lumen. Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria with the aid of opsonins in the uterine fluid. Mast cells and eosinophils may also contribute to the inflammatory reaction, which may damage the surface epithelium and release vasoactive substances that allow leakage of serum antibodies into the uterine secretions. Specific antibodies of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype A, M, G1, and G2 in uterine secretions have been described. In model species, the immune capability of the uterus is influenced by steroid hormones, especially estradiol, which increases secretory component and both IgA and IgG content in uterine secretions and increases the activity of antigen-presenting cells in the uterus. Similar cyclic fluctuations in immune components have been described for cows, including changes in the population of subsurface cytotoxic and helper T cells and changes in the expression of major histocompatibility II antigen on surface cells.
The nutritional requirements of mammalian embryos changes throughout pre-implantation period, coincident with changes in the secretion of the female reproductive tract. Therefore, it has been suggested that sequential culture media may support nutritional requirements for optimal growth of the mammalian embryos. In this study, we investigated the effect of two different concentrations (10 or 10...متن کامل
Female and male reproductive tracts are of interest sites to study of immune system because they encounter specific infections such as those are sexually transmitted. Furthermore, female reproductive tract is in close contact with allogenic sperms and transmitted microorganisms during intercourse and semi allogenic fetus during pregnancy. In mammals, there are two types of immune responses, the...متن کامل
Reproductive abnormalities cause major losses of sheep production. Abattoir materials were used todetermine the extent of reproductive wastage. Reproductive tracts were collected from 524 ewes slaughtered at Urmia slaughter-house in Urmia, northwest of Iran, during a period of 12 months. Overall, 30.10% of the ewes examined were pregnant. A total of 149 (28.44%) tracts developed acquired reprod...متن کامل
Bisphenol-A analogue (bisphenol-S) exposure alters female reproductive tract and apoptosis/oxidative gene expression in blastocyst-derived cells
Objective(s): One of the major endocrine-disrupting chemicals, Bisphenol-S (BPS) has replaced bisphenol-A due to public health anxiety. The present study evaluated low dosage BPS effect on female reproductive potential, hormonal disruption, and gene expression pathways of blastocyst-derived cells.Materials and Methods: NMRI female mice (...متن کامل
Immune surveillance in the female reproductive tract is dependent on the interplay of many factors that include the expression of pattern recognition receptors on epithelial cells, resident leukocyte populations and hormones, none of which are uniform. The lower reproductive tract must accommodate the presence of commensal organisms whereas the upper reproductive tract is sterile. However, the ...متن کامل