Background: Microalbuminuria (MA) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients, but not many studies have specifically examined the effects of MA-lowering on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) among pediatric patients with hypertension. Methods: Fifty-five patients with essential hypertension, 11 to 19 years old were prospectively studied. All patients received concomitant therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Five patients also required angiotensin-receptor blocker to achieve the blood pressure goal. Baseline and 12-month follow-up measures of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) determined by echocardiography and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (MA/Cr) were collected. MA was defined as MA/Cr>30. LVH was defined as LVMI>38.6 g/m2. The primary end points were 25% or more reductions in MA and the LVMI.Results: Weight (r=0.83), body surface area (r=0.85), body mass index (BMI) (r=0.86), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=0.57), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (r=0.49), mean arterial pressure (r=0.53) and MA (r=0.87) were all univariate correlates of LVMI. In a multiple regression analysis, MA, BMI and SBP were significant correlates of LVMI. MA alone explained 76% of the variance of LVMI, whereas BMI and SBP explained only 1.6% and 0.4% of the variance, respectively. MA was the most significant correlate of follow-up LVMI after BMI and SBP were included in the overall multiple regression models. Conclusion: MA is a strong predictor of LVH in hypertensive children and adolescents. MA-lowering halts the progression of LVH or induces its regression.
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