Background and Objective: Today, silver nanoparticles are used extensively in various fields, especially in the control of bacterial infections. However, the toxicity of silver nanoparticles is a very important concern in their use. The aim of this study was determining the effect of the intraperitoneal injection of colloidal silver nanoparticles on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 21 adult female rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group 1 was sham. Group 2 was a control group and group 3 to 7 were case groups that were treated with 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm of silver nanoparticles, respectively. Mice treated for 10 days. On the eleventh day the rats were killed by diethyl ether anesthesia. Blood samples were taken from the heart. Then the biochemical and hematological parameters and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels evaluated. Results: The results showed no significant changes in biochemical factors except triglycerides (TG), which showed a significant decrease in high concentrations of silver nanoparticles (p<0.05). Significant changes were observed at concentrations higher than 20ppm of silver nanoparticles in blood, including: reduction in the amount of white blood cells, increase in number of platelets, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit (p<0.05). At 80ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles the serum level of lactate dehydrogenase fell sharply. Conclusion: Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles (such as injecting it inside the peritoneum) has no effect on biochemical parameters in rats. By studying any other possible side effects, it may be safe to use in various industries.
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