Background: Spontaneous hepatic rupture is a rare condition during pregnancy. Pregnant women with Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelete count (HELLP) syndrome are more susceptible to hepatic rupture. It can occur per 40000 to 250000 pregnancies with high mortality and morbidity. There is no agreement on the best approach to this severe pregnancy complication. This is the case report of a spontaneous hepatic rupture associated with HELLP syndrome during pregnancy which occurred for the first time in the West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Case Presentation: A 33 years old lady gravida 6, 3 intrauterine fetal deaths, 2 neonatal deaths at 30th weeks of gestation was admitted for preeclampsia. On admission, she had thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzyme. Cesarean section was performed due to fetal distress and a preterm fetus was born. Inspection of the abdomen revealed a large hematoma in the right liver lobe associated with rupture of the capsule. Liver packing was performed by general surgeon and the abdomen was closed without repairing of fascia. In the 2nd day after operation, the patient was oriented but the abdomen reopened because of very low blood pressure. There was no severe liver hemorrhage so the liver was packed again with many surgicels. She developed acute kidney and liver failure, pleural effusion and a major coagulopathy post-operatively. Three weeks after surgery the abdomen was reopened for dehiscence and fascia was closed. The patient discharged after 40 days. Conclusion: Spontaneous liver rupture associated with HELLP syndrome is a rare and life-threatening complication of pregnancy. Unruptured liver hematoma is also a rare condition during pregnancy with a very difficult diagnosis. Using clinical diagnostic tests such as CT scan or MRI would be helpful to improve clinical outcomes.
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