Human activated macrophages and hypoxia: a comprehensive review of the literature
Macrophages accumulate in poorly vascularised and hypoxic sites including solid tumours, wounds and sites of infection and inflammation where they can be exposed to low levels of oxygen for long periods. Up to date, different studies have shown that a number of transcription factors are activated by hypoxia which in turn activate a broad array of mitogenic, pro-invasive, pro-angiogenic, and pro-metastatic genes. On the other hand, macrophages respond to hypoxia by up-regulating several genes which are chief factors in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Therefore, in this review article we focus mainly on the role of macrophages during inflammation and discuss their response to hypoxia by regulating a diverse array of transcription factors. We also review the existing literatures on hypoxia and its cellular and molecular mechanism which mediates macrophages activation.
macrophages accumulate in poorly vascularised and hypoxic sites including solid tumours, wounds and sites of infection and inflammation where they can be exposed to low levels of oxygen for long periods. up to date, different studies have shown that a number of transcription factors are activated by hypoxia which in turn activate a broad array of mitogenic, pro-invasive, pro-angiogenic, and pro...متن کامل
Background & Aims of the Study: Fatigue is one of the most important issues relating with safety and other aspects of human life. To understand fatigue and its relative factors and causes, there is a need to useful instruments, such as self-reported scales. The purpose of this study is to identify and present useful self-reported scales to measure fatigue. Materials & Methods: Data were extrac...متن کامل
bonding to dentin is a promising property, which can prevent leakage and improve the sealing ability of endodontic filling materials. resilon was developed and recommended initially because the existing root canal filling materials did not bond to root canal dentin. since its introduction in 2004, numerous reports have been published regarding various aspects of this material. this article aime...متن کامل
Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of human beings transmitted usually by direct contact with infected animals, their secretions and consuming milk or milk products. The disease occurs worldwide in animals as well as humans. Brucellosis in human beings is a multisystem disease with severe clinical manifestations in patients depending upon the site of infection and organ involved. Human b...متن کامل
from linguistics to literature: a linguistic approach to the study of linguistic deviations in the turkish divan of shahriar
chapter i provides an overview of structural linguistics and touches upon the saussurean dichotomies with the final goal of exploring their relevance to the stylistic studies of literature. to provide evidence for the singificance of the study, chapter ii deals with the controversial issue of linguistics and literature, and presents opposing views which, at the same time, have been central to t...15 صفحه اول
دوره 17 شماره 11
صفحات 820- 830
تاریخ انتشار 2014-11-01
با دنبال کردن یک ژورنال هنگامی که شماره جدید این ژورنال منتشر می شود به شما از طریق ایمیل اطلاع داده می شود.