Objective(s): Program death 1 (PD-1)/ program death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, as the main inhibitory checkpoints, induce immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Despite the importance of inhibitor checkpoint receptor (ICR) blockers, their outcomes have been limited by the low immune response rate and induced acquired resistance. Pre-existing tumor-specific T cells is related to the improvement of their therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we show that the combination of liposomal gp100 nanovaccine with anti PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) potentiates the therapeutic effect in the melanoma model.Materials and Methods: In this study, we first decorate the cationic liposome with gp10025-33 self-antigen and then characterize it. Mice bearing B16F10 melanoma tumors were vaccinated with different formulations of gp100 peptide (free or liposomal form) with or without CpG ODN adjuvant in combination with anti PD-1 mAb.Results: Therapeutic combination of liposomal nanovaccine and CpG with anti PD-1 mAb, demonstrated the increased number of tumor infiltrated lymphocytes (TILs) in TME with the highest IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity, which led to remarkable tumor regression. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the synergism between Lip-peptide+CpG nanovaccine and anti PD-1 regime, which improved the therapeutic efficacy of PD-1 checkpoint blocker in melanoma mice models.