Background & Objective: Wound dressing and healing in diabetic patients is encountered with many problems. This study aims to investigate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on the survival of random skin flap (RSF) on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ) using an optical microscope. Materials & Methods: In this study, 60 male Albino Wistar rats were used (average weight 250-300 gr). The rats were divided into six groups: 1). Health-Non (HN), 2). Health- Cells (HC), 3). Health –Sham (HS), 4). Diabetic-Non (DN) that were became diabetic by injecting STZ 70 mg/kg intraperitoneally), 5). Diabetic-Sham (DS), 6). And Diabetic-Cell (DC). In all groups, the day of surgery was considered as the zero day, on the back area of animal, the flap was created with a size of 8 × 3 cm and the BM-MSCs were performed. The sampling was performed on day 7 after surgery from the region where Transitional Zone (TZ) necrosis was initiated. Results: BM-MSCs increased the number of blood vessels (P=0.009) and the histology parameters (wound demarcation P=0.0001, granulation tissue P=0.0001) significantly compared to the control group. But this increase was not significant in the area of the survival region. Conclusion: It was concluded that after treatment with BM-MSCs, the wound healing process in both non-diabetic and diabetic groups was increased in accordance with histological characteristics.