The effect of short-term of fine particles on daily respiratory emergency in cities contaminated with wood smoke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to evaluate in a time-series study the short-term effects of particulate matter-2.5exposure on respiratory emergency visits in six central-southern Chilean cities highly contaminated by wood smoke. METHODS: Association was assessed using both distributed lag linear and non-linear Poisson models constrained to a 7-day lag period, adjusting for temporal trends and meteorological variables and stratifying seasonally into cold and warm periods. FINDING: The results showed that the daily average concentrations of particulate matter-2.5in the cold period were 3 to 6 times those recorded in the warm period, exceeding the daily norm of 50 µg/m3 the 93.3% of the time versus 6.7%, respectively. The average daily number of respiratory emergency visits were between 30% and 64% higher in the cold period compared to the warm one. From linear models, cumulative relative risk ratios over 0-7 day lags per 10 mg/m3 of fine particle increase were between 1.004 (95% confidence Interval: 0.998 - 1.010) and 1.061 (95% confidence Interval: 1.049 - 1.074); these annual effects are attributable to the cold period impact where the cumulative risk ratios were between 1.008 (95% confidence Interval: 1.004 - 1.012) and 1.036 (95% confidence Interval: 1.026 - 1.047), since significant effects of fine particles on the studied risk were not found for the warm period. CONCLUSION: With non-linear models we observed strong increasing associations with the level of particles for the overall period. High levels of fineparticles from firewood are associated with respiratory effects observable several days after exposure. Health effects found in this study suggest that current policies tending to mitigate woodsmoke-related emissions should continue and reinforce.
the washback effect of discretepoint vs. integrative tests on the retention of content in knowledge tests
در این پایان نامه تاثیر دو نوع تست جزیی نگر و کلی نگر بر به یادسپاری محتوا ارزیابی شده که نتایج نشان دهندهکارایی تستهای کلی نگر بیشتر از سایر آزمونها است15 صفحه اول
the effect of taftan pozzolan on the compressive strength of concrete in the environmental conditions of oman sea (chabahar port)
cement is an essential ingredient in the concrete buildings. for production of cement considerable amount of fossil fuel and electrical energy is consumed. on the other hand for generating one tone of portland cement, nearly one ton of carbon dioxide is released. it shows that 7 percent of the total released carbon dioxide in the world relates to the cement industry. considering ecological issu...
the effects of keyword and context methods on pronunciation and receptive/ productive vocabulary of low-intermediate iranian efl learners: short-term and long-term memory in focus
از گذشته تا کنون، تحقیقات بسیاری صورت گرفته است که همگی به گونه ای بر مثمر ثمر بودن استفاده از استراتژی های یادگیری لغت در یک زبان بیگانه اذعان داشته اند. این تحقیق به بررسی تاثیر دو روش مختلف آموزش واژگان انگلیسی (کلیدی و بافتی) بر تلفظ و دانش لغوی فراگیران ایرانی زیر متوسط زبان انگلیسی و بر ماندگاری آن در حافظه می پردازد. به این منظور، تعداد شصت نفر از زبان آموزان ایرانی هشت تا چهارده ساله با...15 صفحه اول
in the present study, the effect of e-64 at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 µm) added to (1) the ivm medium on oocyte nuclear maturation and developmental competence of ovine oocytes, and (2) to the ivc medium on embryonic development of ovine embryos were investigated.
the effect of learning strategies on the speaking ability of iranian students in the context of language institutes
the effect of learning strategies on the speaking ability of iranian students in the context of language institutes abstract language learning strategies are of the most important factors that help language learners to learn a foreign language and how they can deal with the four language skills specifically speaking skill effectively. acknowledging the great impact of learning strategies...
the effect of authentic listening materials on the listening proficiency of efl learners in the intermediate level
having conducted the experiment and analysed the data, the researcher computed the groups mean scores and variances for the test relating to the research question. as the final atep, a t-test was conodonted for the hypothesis. as noted earlier, the significance level was determined at .05 and .01 respectively. the observed t-value was higher than the critical t-value at. 5 and .01 levels. conse...15 صفحه اول
دوره 7 شماره 1
صفحات 15- 32
تاریخ انتشار 2021-01-01
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