To learn to read is to acquire a visual language skill that systematically maps onto extant spoken language skills. Some children perform this task quite adeptly, while others encounter much difficulty, and it has become a question of both scientific and practical merit to ask why there exists such a range of success in learning to read. Obviously, learning to read places a complex burden on ma...
How do people acquire skill at comprehending what they read? That is the simple question to which we shall try to make a tentative answer. To begin, we have to acknowledge some complexities about the concept of reading comprehension and what it means to develop it.
:Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition1990
A P Shimamura,
L R Squire,
Amnesic patients were studied to determine whether the acquisition and retention of item-specific skills can be supported by nondeclarative (implicit) memory. In Experiment 1, subjects read 2 different passages 3 times in succession. Reading speed improved at a similar rate in both amnesic patients and normal subjects and was specific to the text that was read. In Experiment 2, amnesic patients...
This study was designed to investigate the effects of gender and Schema-based pre-reading activities on the Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The sample consisted of 60 male and female students studying at second-grade high school in Abhar city. Two reading passages (“Charles Dickens and the Little Children”, and “Hic, Hic, Hic”) were randomly selected from second-grade English textb...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a peer-mediated instructional approach on the teaching of phonological skills and reading comprehension for middle school (sixth- to eighth-grade) students with reading disabilities. All students (n = 38) were identified as having learning disabilities and reading at the third-grade level or below. One group was taught using a peer-mediated...
Donald P Shankweiler,
W Einar Mencl,
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are ...
Sarah E. Carlson,
Paul van den Broek,
David N. Rapp,
Catherine M. Bohn-Gettler,
Mary Jane White,
Center on Teaching & Learning, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA; Department of Education and Child Studies, University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Educational Psychology, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA; Department of Psychology and School of Education and Social Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; Department of Education...
:Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior2011
Several studies using the mirror-reading paradigm have shown that procedural learning and repetition priming may be preserved in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (e.g., Deweer et al., 1994). According to the classical interpretation, improved reading time for repeated words is sustained by a repetition priming effect, while procedural learning is demonstrated when this improvement i...
Our study investigated the importance of reader aptitudes (prior knowledge and reading skill) in the processing of an expository text. We analyzed self-explanations produced by 42 high-school students while reading an expository text about thunderstorms. Specifically, we focused on students attempts to paraphrase information (i.e., restate sentences in their own words) and elaborate on the sent...
Jessica Wise Younger,
James R. Booth,
Attempts to characterize the neural differences between individuals with and without dyslexia generally point to reduced activation in and connectivity between brain areas in a reading network composed of the inferior frontal gyrus, the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, and the dorsal temporo-parietal circuit. However, developmental work on brain activity during reading has indicated that some ...