Thyroid disorder is a general term representing several different diseases involving thyroid hormones and the thyroid gland. Thyroid disorders are commonly separated into two major categories, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, depending on whether serum thyroid hormone levels (T4 and T3) are increased or decreased, respectively. Thyroid disease generally may be sub-classified based on etiolog...
Soha A Zouwail,
Angela M O'Toole,
Penelope M S Clark,
Joe P Begley,
1. American Diabetes Association. Nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:S79–S83. 2. Gross JL, de Azevedo MJ, Silveiro SP, Canani LH, Caramori ML, Zelmanovitz T. Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Diabetes Care 2005;28:164 –76. 3. Sacks DB, Bruns DE, Goldstein DE, Maclaren NK, McDonald JM, Parrott M. Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the ...
Benjamin C. Blount,
Judy C. Bernbaum,
Terry M. Phillips,
Walter J. Rogan,
Environmental exposure of infants to perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, might interfere with thyroid function. U.S. women with higher background perchlorate exposure have higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and lower thyroxine (T4). There are no studies with individual measures of thyroid function and these goitrogens available in infants.
We examined the association...
:The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine1976
Nicholas M. Alexander,
This book contains a collection of 26 papers that were presented at an International Symposium in Glasgow, Scotland, August, 1974. It is divided into two sections entitled "Metabolism and Binding" (15 papers) and "Thyroid Hormone Function in Clinical Investigation" (11 papers). The first section begins with an authoritative review by J. Robbins on the structure and function of serum thyroxine-t...
Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by sev...
:Endocrinologia y nutricion : organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia y Nutricion2011
Thyroid hormone resistance syndromes are a group of genetic conditions characterized by decreased tissue sensitivity to thyroid hormones. Three syndromes, in which resistance to hormone action is respectively due to mutations in the gene encoding for thyroid hormone receptor TRβ, impaired T4 and T3 transport, and impaired conversion of T4 to T3 mediated by deiodinases. An updated review of each...
A paper published in this issue of the Journal of Endocrinology has revisited the hypothesis that thyroid hormones may be generated by tissues outside the thyroid gland in higher organisms including mammals. This commentary appraises the strengths and weaknesses of the study, the alternative explanations for the findings and possible future measures to investigate further. The concept of extrat...
A series of reports in the past decade have ascribed pro-angiogenic activity to several thyroid hormone analogues, including L-thyroxine (T(4)), 3,5,3-triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3)) and diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA). Model systems of angiogenesis have demonstrated that thyroid hormone-induced neovascularization is initiated at a cell surface receptor for the hormone on an integrin. The hormone ...