Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract
It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.
Female and male reproductive tracts are of interest sites to study of immune system because they encounter specific infections such as those are sexually transmitted. Furthermore, female reproductive tract is in close contact with allogenic sperms and transmitted microorganisms during intercourse and semi allogenic fetus during pregnancy. In mammals, there are two types of immune responses, the...متن کامل
Bisphenol-A analogue (bisphenol-S) exposure alters female reproductive tract and apoptosis/oxidative gene expression in blastocyst-derived cells
Objective(s): One of the major endocrine-disrupting chemicals, Bisphenol-S (BPS) has replaced bisphenol-A due to public health anxiety. The present study evaluated low dosage BPS effect on female reproductive potential, hormonal disruption, and gene expression pathways of blastocyst-derived cells.Materials and Methods: NMRI female mice (...متن کامل
Reproductive abnormalities cause major losses of sheep production. Abattoir materials were used todetermine the extent of reproductive wastage. Reproductive tracts were collected from 524 ewes slaughtered at Urmia slaughter-house in Urmia, northwest of Iran, during a period of 12 months. Overall, 30.10% of the ewes examined were pregnant. A total of 149 (28.44%) tracts developed acquired reprod...متن کامل
Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failur...متن کامل
Background: Adipokins are cytokines predominantely or exclusively expressed by adipose tissue that circulate and affect target tissues. Four known adipokines, adiponectin, visfatin/PBEF, omentin and vaspin, all increase tissue sensitivity to insulin, and are thus described as ’beneficial’. In this review such biological actions and potential roles of the adipokines leptin, adiponectin and resis...متن کامل