Instrumental Motivation is Extrinsic Motivation : So What ? ? ?
The present anticipation of future goals creates instrumental motivation for immediate actions that are expected to be instrumental for achieving those future goals. Instrumental motivation is however by definition extrinsic motivation. Based on empirical research in educational settings, it is commonly argued that extrinsic motivation is of lower quality than intrinsic motivation. More recent developments in motivational psychology – in particular the development from the Cognitive Evaluation Theory into the Self-Determination Theory – replaced the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by the more relevant distinction between autonomous and controlled motivation or behavioral regulation. Some types of extrinsic motivation belong to the category autonomous motivation, that is the case when the individual integrates or identifies with the external reason for doing the activity. We review empirical research from our research group that shows that instrumental motivation that is based on anticipated future goals can be autonomous and hence have a high quality. What matters is the content of the future goals and how they regulate behavior. Intrinsic future goals which are not perceived by the individual as externally controlling but as creating autonomous motivation/behavioral regulation are almost as adaptive as intrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic value is a concept central to the environmentalist movement. Whether one believes that natural objects have intrinsic value is supposed to determine whether one takes a ecocentric or homocentric approach to environmentalism, whether we practice deep or (merely) shallow ecology. Yet this concept is also a center of controversy and confusion. Just what does it mean for something to ha...متن کامل
Studing the relationship between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation on employee knowledge transfer (case study of Social Security organization in Kerman)
Knowledge transfer was the most important factors of success for organizations in today's complex and changing environment as one of aspects of knowledge management. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation by transfer the employee’s knowledge in social security organizations in Kerman. The method research is descriptive and...متن کامل
Although Gardner and his associates’ work was most influential in the field of L2 motivation, from the early 1990s onwards, their work has been criticized for several reasons. Some researchers claimed that integrative and instrumental orientations were no longer able to convey the complexity of the L2 motivation construct. To examine this complexity, the present study attempted to investigate t...متن کامل
In this paper, we study intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation in players playing an electrical engineering gaming environment. We used UNTANGLED, a highly interactive game to conduct this study. This game is developed to solve complex mapping problem from electrical engineering using human intuitions. Our goal is to find whether there are differences in the ways anonymous players solved electrical...متن کامل
Gravamen is a kind of lyrical literature in which human tries own suffering and distress to reveal the audience. There are several types of gravamen. One of them is the mystical breakthrough that comes from the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Including Intrinsic motivations can be mentioned the sadness of separation from partner, the sadness of separation from partner, sensual temptations, ...متن کامل