Background: The most common symptom of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is abnormal vaginal bleeding. Despite repeated visits of patients with postpartum choriocarcinoma and abnormal postpartum hemorrhage, delayed diagnosis leads to advanced disease with widespread metastasis. Therefore, occurrence of choriocarcinoma with variable patterns in different diagnosis of late onset postpartum hemorrhage should be considered. Early diagnosis of choriocarcinoma after term pregnancy is important that resulted in decrease of maternal morbidity. Therefor late onset postpartum hemorrhage should have an awareness. The aim of this study was to report a case of choriocarcinoma after caesarian section. Case Presentation: A 33-years-old woman one month after antecedent caesarian section in her second pregnancy admitted with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Based on raised titer concentration of β-hCG was 187000 u, with clinical suspicious of choriocarcinoma she was referred to oncology department of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2016. Vaginal exam revealed an enlarged uterus about 10 weeks of pregnancy. Transvaginal sonography showed an intracavitary heterogeneous mass with irregular surface in fundus without myometrium invasion. Extra pelvic metastasis excluded via vaginal exam, pulmonary X-ray and, ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. Due to early stage of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and diagnosis of this condition, single agent chemotherapy (methotrexate) was recommended, but because of unresponsive disease, subsequently, she was treated with combination chemotherapy (etoposide, methotrexate, and actinomycin, followed by cyclophosphamide and vincristine) that led to remarkable response. After three courses of therapy, normal level of β-hCG was observed and now the patient is free of disease and under-serial follow-up visit for choriocarcinoma. Conclusion: Diagnosis of choriocarcinoma should be considered in any postpartum woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding.
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