Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies
BACKGROUND Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD) have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. METHODS The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a) Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b) Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c) Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d) PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e) TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f) Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. RESULTS In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration), CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. CONCLUSION The overall result evolved from the study strengthens the candidature of CAD as a safe microbicidal spermicide. It is almost non-irritant to rabbit skin and rat vaginal tissues at doses 10 fold higher than its hemolytic index. The effect of CAD on Lactobacillus culture was not highly encouraging but it prevented the growth of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans at 20 mg/ml of CAD.
Spermicidal and Contraceptive Potential of Desgalactotigonin: A Prospective Alternative of Nonoxynol-9
Crude decoction of Chenopodium album seed showed spermicidal effect at MIC 2 mg/ml in earlier studies. Systematic isolation, characterization and evaluation revealed that the major metabolite Desgalactotigonin (DGT) is the most effective principle in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro studies comprises (a) rat and human sperm motility and immobilizing activity by Sander-Cramer assa...متن کامل
Anethum graveolens L. (dill) is used widely in Asian food and folk medicine but its safety profile for further clinical studies has remained unclear. After administration of total hydroalcoholic extract to mice in acute, subacute and subchronic treatment periods, toxic responses were recoreded by clinical, biochemical, hematological and pathological examinations. Doses up to 2000 mg/kg in acute...متن کامل
Evaluation of Allelopathic Impact of Aqueous Extract of Root and Aerial Root of Tinospora Cordifolia (willd
The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.). Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their ...متن کامل
Inhibitory Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Caltrop (Tribulus terrestris L.) on Germination and Growth of Avena fatua L., Chenopodium album L., Setaria viridis L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.
Background: The use of allelopathic plant extracts as herbicide is being popularized in recent years. Objective: This research has been conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of caltrop (Tribulus terrestris L.) on seed germination and growth of Avena fatua L., Chenopodium album L., Setaria viridis L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L. Methods: This research was done to evalature the ef...متن کامل
Efficacy evaluation of tribenuron methyl herbicide by using different adjuvants for common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) control
Environmental risks resulting from increasing application of herbicides have raised many concerns about human health and safety of agro ecosystems and environment. Hence, it is very important to find practical and effective methods for reducing the use of pesticides in environment as well as the increasing the efficiency of these compounds. Addition of adjuvants to spray solutions could be cons...متن کامل