Functional Comparison of HBZ and the Related APH-2 Protein Provides Insight into Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Pathogenesis.
UNLABELLED Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are highly related retroviruses that transform T cells in vitro but have distinct pathological outcomes in vivo. HTLV-1 encodes a protein from the antisense strand of its proviral genome, the HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), which inhibits Tax-1-mediated viral transcription and promotes cell proliferation, a high proviral load, and persistence in vivo. In adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cell lines and patient T cells, hbz is often the only viral gene expressed. The antisense strand of the HTLV-2 proviral genome also encodes a protein termed APH-2. Like HBZ, APH-2 is able to inhibit Tax-2-mediated viral transcription and is detectable in most primary lymphocytes from HTLV-2-infected patients. However, unlike HBZ, the loss of APH-2 in vivo results in increased viral replication and proviral loads, suggesting that HBZ and APH-2 modulate the virus and cellular pathways differently. Herein, we examined the effect of APH-2 on several known HBZ-modulated pathways: NF-κB (p65) transactivation, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) transactivation. Like HBZ, APH-2 has the ability to inhibit p65 transactivation. Conversely, HBZ and APH-2 have divergent effects on TGF-β signaling and IRF-1 transactivation. Quantitative PCR and protein half-life experiments revealed a substantial disparity between HBZ and APH-2 transcript levels and protein stability, respectively. Taken together, our data further elucidate the functional differences between HBZ and APH-2 and how these differences can have profound effects on the survival of infected cells and, ultimately, pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are highly related retroviruses that have distinct pathological outcomes in infected hosts. Functional comparisons of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proteins provide a better understanding about how HTLV-1 infection is associated with disease and HTLV-2 infection is not. The HTLV genome antisense-strand genes hbz and aph-2 are often the only viral genes expressed in HTLV-infected T cells. Previously, our group found that HTLV-1 HBZ and HTLV-2 APH-2 had distinct effects in vivo and hypothesized that the differences in the interactions of HBZ and APH-2 with important cell signaling pathways dictate whether cells undergo proliferation, apoptosis, or senescence. Ultimately, these functional differences may affect how HTLV-1 causes disease but HTLV-2 generally does not. In the current study, we compared the effects of HBZ and APH-2 on several HTLV-relevant cellular pathways, including the TGF-β signaling, NF-κB activation, and IRF-1 transactivation pathways.
The production of antisense transcripts from the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) in human T-lymphotropic retroviruses has now been clearly demonstrated. After the identification of the antisense strand-encoded human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) bZIP (HBZ) factor, we reported that HBZ could interact with CRE-binding protein (CREB) transcription factors and consequently turn off the importa...متن کامل
Stability of the HTLV-1 Antisense-Derived Protein, HBZ, Is Regulated by the E3 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase, UBR5
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) encodes a protein derived from the antisense strand of the proviral genome designated HBZ (HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor). HBZ is the only viral gene consistently expressed in infected patients and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) tumor cell lines. It functions to antagonize many activities of the Tax viral transcriptional activator, suppress...متن کامل
Retroviral gene expression generally depends on a full-length transcript that initiates in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR), which is either unspliced or alternatively spliced. We and others have demonstrated the existence of an antisense transcript initiating in the 3' LTR of the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) that is involved in the production of HBZ (HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper...متن کامل
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 3 (HTLV-3) and HTLV-4 antisense-transcript-encoded proteins interact and transactivate Jun family-dependent transcription via their atypical bZIP motif.
Human T-cell leukemia virus types 3 and 4 (HTLV-3 and HTLV-4) are recently isolated retroviruses. We have previously characterized HTLV-3- and HTLV-4-encoded antisense genes, termed APH-3 and APH-4, respectively, which, in contrast to HBZ, the HTLV-1 homologue, do not contain a typical bZIP domain (M. Larocque É Halin, S. Landry, S. J. Marriott, W. M. Switzer, and B. Barbeau, J. Virol. 85:12673...متن کامل
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 produces a spliced antisense transcript encoding a protein that lacks a classic bZIP domain but still inhibits Tax2-mediated transcription.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) retroviruses infect T lymphocytes. The minus strand of the HTLV-1 genome encodes HBZ, a protein that could play a role in the development of leukemia in infected patients. Herein, we demonstrate that the complementary strand of the HTLV-2 genome also encodes a protein that we named APH-2 for "antisense protein of HTLV-2." APH-2 mRN...متن کامل