PDZ binding motif of HTLV-1 Tax promotes virus-mediated T-cell proliferation in vitro and persistence in vivo.
HTLV-1 cellular transformation and disease induction is dependent on expression of the viral Tax oncoprotein. PDZ is a modular protein interaction domain used in organizing signaling complexes in eukaryotic cells through recognition of a specific binding motif in partner proteins. Tax-1, but not Tax-2, contains a PDZ-binding domain motif (PBM) that promotes the interaction with several cellular PDZ proteins. Herein, we investigate the contribution of the Tax-1 PBM in HTLV-induced proliferation and immortalization of primary T cells in vitro and viral survival in an infectious rabbit animal model. We generated several HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax viral mutants, including HTLV-1deltaPBM, HTLV-2+C22(+PBM), and HTLV-2+ C18(deltaPBM). All Tax mutants maintained the ability to significantly activate the CREB/ATF or NFkappaB signaling pathways. Microtiter proliferation assays revealed that the Tax-1 PBM significantly increases both HTLV-1- and HTLV-2-induced primary T-cell proliferation. In addition, Tax-1 PBM was responsible for the micronuclei induction activity of Tax-1 relative to that of Tax-2. Viral infection and persistence were severely attenuated in rabbits inoculated with HTLV-1deltaPBM. Our results provide the first direct evidence suggesting that PBM-mediated associations between Tax-1 and cellular proteins play a key role in HTLV-induced cell proliferation and genetic instability in vitro and facilitate viral persistence in vivo.
The PDZ Binding Motif of HTLV-1 Tax Promotes Virus Mediated T-cell Proliferation In Vitro and Persistence In Vivo
HTLV-1 cellular transformation and disease induction is dependent on expression of the viral Tax oncoprotein. PDZ is a modular protein interaction domain used in organizing signaling complexes in eukaryotic cells through recognition of a specific binding motif in partner proteins. Tax-1, but not Tax-2, contains a PDZ-binding domain motif (PBM) that promotes the interaction with several cellular...متن کامل
The Transcription Profile of Tax-3 Is More Similar to Tax-1 than Tax-2: Insights into HTLV-3 Potential Leukemogenic Properties
Human T-cell Lymphotropic Viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma. Although associated with lymphocytosis, HTLV-2 infection is not associated with any malignant hematological disease. Similarly, no infection-related symptom has been detected in HTLV-3-infected individuals studied so far. Differences in individual Tax transcriptional activity might acco...متن کامل
In vivo genomic footprinting of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) long terminal repeat enhancer sequences in HTLV-1-infected human T-cell lines with different levels of Tax I activity.
The Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) enhances viral gene expression through sequences in the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat. These sequences consist of three imperfect 21-bp repeats (TRE-1s) and a region between the promoter-central and promoter-proximal 21-bp repeats (TRE-2). The TRE-1s contain a core cyclic AMP response element (CRE) motif and can be bou...متن کامل
Downregulation of proapoptotic Bim augments IL-2-independent T-cell transformation by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 Tax
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia, immortalizes and transforms primary human T cells in vitro in both an interleukin (IL)-2-dependent and IL-2-independent manner. Expression of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax transforms the growth of the mouse T-cell line CTLL-2 from being IL-2-dependent to IL-2-independent. Withdrawal of IL-2 from normal acti...متن کامل
Interference of HTLV-1 Tax Protein with Cell Polarity Regulators: Defining the Subcellular Localization of the Tax-DLG1 Interaction
Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 Tax (Tax) protein is very important in viral replication and cell transformation. Tax localizes in the nucleus and cytoplasm in association with organelles. Some activities of Tax depend on interactions with PDZ (PSD-95/Discs Large/Z0-1) domain-containing proteins such as Discs large protein 1 (DLG1) which is involved in cell polarity and proliferation. The ...متن کامل