Apolipoprotein E deficiency and high-fat diet cooperate to trigger lipidosis and inflammation in the lung via the toll-like receptor 4 pathway
Apolipoprotein E deficiency (ApoE(-/-)) combined with a high-fat Western-type diet (WD) is known to activate the toll-like receptor (TLR4) pathway and promote atherosclerosis. However, to date, the pathogenic effects of these conditions on the lung have not been extensively studied. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of ApoE(-/-) and a WD on lung injury and investigated the underlying mechanisms. ApoE(-/-) and wild-type mice were fed a WD or normal chow diet for 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Lung inflammation, lung cholesterol content and cytokines profiles in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. TLR4 and its main downstream molecules were analyzed with western blot analysis. In addition, the role of the TLR4 pathway was further validated using TLR4-targeted gene silencing. The results showed that ApoE(-/-) mice developed lung lipidosis following 12 weeks of receiving a WD, as evidenced by an increased lung cholesterol content. Moreover, dependent on the time period of receiving the diet, those mice exhibited pulmonary inflammation, which was manifested by initial leukocyte recruitment (at 4 weeks), by increased alveolar septal thickness and mean linear intercept as well as elevated production of inflammation mediators (at 12 weeks), and by granuloma formation (at 24 weeks). The expression levels of TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B were markedly upregulated in ApoE(-/-) WD mice at week 12. However, these effects were ameliorated by shRNA-mediated knockdown of TLR4. By contrast, ApoE(-/-) ND or wild-type WD mice exhibited low-grade or no inflammation and mild lipidosis. The levels of TLR4 and MyD88 in those mice showed only minor changes. In conclusion, ApoE deficiency acts synergistically with a WD to trigger lung lipidosis and inflammation at least in part via TLR4 signaling.
Activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway and abnormal cholesterol efflux lead to emphysema in ApoE-deficient mice.
Smokers with airflow obstruction have an increased risk of atherosclerosis, but the relationship between the pathogenesis of these diseases is not well understood. To determine whether hypercholesterolemia alters lung inflammation and emphysema formation, we examined the lung phenotype of two hypercholesterolemic murine models of atherosclerosis at baseline and on a high-fat diet. Airspace enla...متن کامل
Resveratrol protects against diet-induced atherosclerosis by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inhibiting inflammation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
Objective(s):Resveratrol (RES) is a polyphenol compound that has been shown a promising cardioprotective effect. However, some reports have yielded conflicting findings. Herein, we investigated the anti-atherosclerotic effects of RES in apolipoprotein E (apo E)-deficient mice on a high cholesterol diet. Materials and Methods: Firstly, atherosclerosis was induced by feeding a high cholesterol di...متن کامل
Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates inflammation in adipocyte of obese rats via toll-like receptors 4 signaling
Objective(s): To explore whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress regulates inflammation in adipose tissue of obese rats via TLR4 signaling. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, and body weight, food intake, and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to determine mRNA or protein expression of TLR4, TRAF6, IKK...متن کامل
Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor attenuates atherosclerosis via decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress
Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease leading to loss of vascular homeostasis and entails fibrosis, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved vascular pathophysiology and in the regulation of oxidative stress in macrophages. Although, oxidative stress and inflammation play a crit...متن کامل
BACKGROUND Previously we reported that mice deficient in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) signalling were protected from diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Another member of the toll-like receptor family, TLR-2, has been shown to play a role in lipid trafficking via uptake of diacylated lipoproteins. However, a role for TLR-2 in NASH has not been elucidated. The objectives of the cu...متن کامل