Resilient Infrastructure

نویسندگان

  • Tarek L. Rashwan
  • Jason I. Gerhard
  • Gavin P. Grant
چکیده

A major challenge in designing resilient infrastructure is to meet the needs of sustainable development (Kennedy & Corfee-Morlot, 2013). Sustainable development requires a high degree of energy efficiency. Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in particular, have the potential to be much more sustainable. In the U.S., 3 – 4% of the total energy consumed is dedicated to WWTPs and drinking water services, accounting for 30 – 40% of energy consumed by municipalities (U.S. EPA, 2014). In Canada, 25% of the $123 billion municipal deficit in 2006 was tied to water supply systems (i.e., drinking water, wastewater, and storm water) (Mirza, 2006). This problem becomes further complicated as much of North America’s WWTP infrastructure approaches the end of its design life. An estimated $298 billion and $39 billion is required in the U.S. and Canada, respectively, to satisfactorily refurbish WWTP infrastructure (ASCE, 2013; Félio et al., 2012). Within WWTPs, around 50% of the operating and capital costs are dedicated to managing the solid by-product, biosolids, making it the most expensive system component (Khiari et al., 2004). In Canada, 90% of biosolids are either incinerated or land applied for agricultural purposes (Apedaile, 2001). These methods are expensive, requiring high energy inputs in various forms (e.g., fuel, labour, transportation) (Wang et al., 2008). Land application is also subject to limitations and uncertain risks due to the potential for introducing synthetic contaminants into the environment (Hale et al., 2001; U.S. EPA, 1995). In general, managing biosolids persists as a major energy intensive challenge within WWTPs and there is a strong need to provide novel solutions (Tyagi & Lo, 2013).

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تاریخ انتشار 2016