The diphtheria and pertussis components of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine should be genetically inactivated mutant toxins.
Replacement of cellular with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines has considerably reduced the systemic reactions observed with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine but has not eliminated the extensive swelling (sometimes involving an entire limb) observed after the fifth injection of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-aP (DTaP) vaccine. This local reaction, which is likely an Arthus hypersensitivity reaction caused by high levels of antibodies reacting with DTaP vaccine, could discourage its use in adults, who serve as the major reservoir of pertussis for infants. That a critical level of antibodies to pertussis toxin is both essential and sufficient to prevent infection with Bordetella pertussis is derived from data from animal and clinical studies, including data showing the similarities between the immunity induced by diphtheria and pertussis toxoids. The genetically inactivated diphtheria and pertussis mutant toxins are more immunogenic and, therefore, induce comparable levels of antitoxin at lower protein levels than do the formalin-treated native toxins. Replacement of the diphtheria and aP components with these improved antigens will reduce the amount of protein in DTaP vaccine and, most likely, the incidence and severity of local reactions in teenagers and adults.
Immunogenicity of a Triple Diphtheria-Tetanus-Whole Cell Pertussis Vaccine in Iranian Preschool Children
Background: Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis has been applied in Iran since 1950. WHO suggests periodical evaluation of effectiveness of the triple diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine, worldwide. Objectives: To determine the immunogenicity of locally manufactured DTwP vaccine administered to preschool children in a number of health centers of Tehran in 2...متن کامل
1089Safety and Immunogenicity of DTaP-IPV (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed Combined with Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) Compared to DAPTACEL® (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed) + IPOL® (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated) as the 5th Dose in Children 4 to 6 Years of Age
and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed Combined with Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) Compared to DAPTACEL 1 (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed) + IPOL 1 (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated) as the 5th Dose in Children 4 to 6 Years of Age Michael Smith, MD; Xiaohua Sheng, PhD; Emilia Jordanov, MD; Peter Tsang, MD PhD; Louisville University, Louisville, KY; Cli...متن کامل
A Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome induces protection in mice without affecting the immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in a trivalent formulation
In this study, a formulation of Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome (PLBp), diphtheria, and tetanus toxoids and alum (DT-PLBp) was evaluated as a trivalent vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice. Vaccine-induced protection was estimated using the intranasal challenge for pertussis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay fvto assess serological responses for diphtheria or tetanus. Both, diphtheria-tetan...متن کامل
Effect of inactivated poliovirus vaccine on the antibody response to Bordetella pertussis antigens when combined with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine.
To determine if inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis vaccine interferes with the immunogenicity of pertussis vaccine, we performed a randomized trial of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine combined with inactivated poliovirus vaccine given as a single injection or as two separate injections at the same visit to inf...متن کامل
DESCRIPTION DAPTACEL, Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed, for intramuscular use, manufactured by Aventis Pasteur Limited, is a sterile suspension of pertussis antigens and diphtheria and tetanus toxoids adsorbed on aluminum phosphate in a sterile isotonic sodium chloride solution. After shaking, the vaccine is a white homogeneous cloudy suspension. Each dose...متن کامل