Clinical Pharmacology of Ceftriaxone in Neonates and Infants: Effects and Pharmacokinetics
Ceftriaxone is a versatile and useful "third-generation" cephalosporin that needs to be administered once-daily. Ceftriaxone is a β-lactamase-resistant cephalosporin. It is active against important gram-positive and most gram-negative bacteria. The MIC90s of ceftriaxone are 0.1 µg/ml for Escherichia coli, 0.1 µg/ml for Klebsiella species, 0.2 µg/ml for Proteus species, 0.3 µg/ml for Enterobacter species, 0.4 µg/ml for Serratia species, 0.06 µg/ml for Streptococcus agalactiae, and 2 µg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus (β-lactamase producers). Ceftriaxone, like other cephalosporins, kills bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of cell walls. Ceftriaxone has a good penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid and is useful in the treatment of meningitis sustained by susceptible bacteria. The dose of ceftriaxone is 50 mg/kg per day in neonates and 100 mg/kg per day in older infants. Ceftriaxone has a longer half-life than other cephalosporins; the plasma half-life of ceftriaxone is 15 hours at birth and 7 hours over 2-4 weeks. The mean distribution volume of ceftriaxone ranges from 0.497 to 0.608 l/kg, and is not different in neonates and infants. In neonates, the total body clearance is 0.28 ml/min/kg after single administration and 0.41 to 0.54 ml/min/kg after multiple ceftriaxone administrations. After single intramuscular administration of ceftriaxone, the time to reach the peak plasma concentration is 1.8 hours. This antibiotic displaces bilirubin from albumin binding sites, thereby increasing the amount of free bilirubin in plasma. Ceftriaxone should not be administered to infants with hyperbilirubinemia. The aim of this study is to review the effects and pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in neonates.
Cefotaxime is a bactericidal "third generation" cephalosporin has a broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive microorganisms and exceptional activity against most gram-negative microorganisms. Cefotaxime is widely considered to be the antibiotic of choice for the management of neonatal meningitis and sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Cefotaxime is active against Neisseria meningitis,...متن کامل
Ampicillin is a bactericidal antibiotic, it penetrates into the bacterial wall better than penicillin G and is active against gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to penicillin G. Ampicillin has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and is the most widely used antibiotic for treating infections caused by Listeria, β-lactamase-negative Haemophilus, enterococci, Shigella, streptococci, Esc...متن کامل
Ceftazidime is a valuable third-generation bactericidal cephalosporin. Ceftazidime inhibits the biosynthesis of bacterial cell peptidoglycan, causing inhibition of bacterial growth or cell lyses and death. Common nosocomial gram-negative organisms susceptible to ceftazidime include Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria, Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabil...متن کامل
Ciprofloxacin is the most commonly used fluoroquinolone. Ciprofloxacin is prescribed for 1 in 44 Americans. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic, effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, being especially active against the Enterobacteriacae, including many microorganisms resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, and also is effect...متن کامل
Fluconazole is commonly used both to prevent and to treat invasive neonatal Candida albicans infection. This drug is a potent, selective, triazole inhibitor of the fungal enzymes involved in ergosterol synthesis. It is largely excreted unchanged in the urine. In infants with a birth weightمتن کامل
Meropenem, a carbapenem antibiotic, has a broad-spectrum activity and is active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influencae, Moraxella catarrhalis, gram-negative enteric bacilli as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Meropenem has excellent penetration in body tissues and in cerebrospinal fluid (in the presenc...متن کامل
دوره 5 شماره 9
صفحات 5751- 5778
تاریخ انتشار 2017-09-01
با دنبال کردن یک ژورنال هنگامی که شماره جدید این ژورنال منتشر می شود به شما از طریق ایمیل اطلاع داده می شود.