Clinical Pharmacology of the Antimalarial Quinine in Children
Quinine is the best studied drug for treating severe malaria in very young children. Quinine may be administered in pregnancy and, at therapeutic doses, malformations have not been reported. Some strains of quinine from Southeast Asia and South America have become resistant. Quinine is the treatment of choice for the drug-resistant severe Plasmodium falciparum. The antimalarial mechanism of quinine is the binding to heme preventing its detoxification. The dose of quinine is 10 mg/kg every 12 hours, and it may be administered orally, intramuscularly or intravenously. When it is administrated intravenously it must be infused slowly over 2 to 4 hours. The treatment of severe/complicated childhood malaria appears to be evolving, and in 2005, the Indian Academy of Pediatrics Guideline recommended quinine, suggesting that artesunate/artemether was the less preferred alternative. In 2008, the Infectious Diseases Chapter, Indian Academy of Pediatrics recommended quinine with tetracycline/doxycycline/clindamycin in line with the WHO 2006 statement. In 2010, the WHO recommended aresunate for treating malaria infection, positioning quinine as an alternative. Malaria is caused by three parasites namely: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium ovale. Plasmodium falciparum is the most common and virulent parasite. These parasites are present in different areas of the sub-Saharan African countries and Asia. In 2010, there were estimated 219 million cases of malaria resulting in 666,000 deaths and two-thirds were children. Children are more vulnerable than adults to malaria parasites. The aim of this study is to review the published data on the clinical pharmacology of quinine in children.
Clinical Pharmacology of the Antimalarial Artemisinin-Based Combination and other Artemisinins in Children
In 2010, there were estimated 219 million cases of malaria resulting in 666,000 deaths and two-thirds were children. Children are more vulnerable than adults to malaria parasites. In sub-Saharan African countries, maternal malaria is associated with up to 200,000 estimated infant deaths yearly. Malaria is caused by five Plasmodium parasites namely: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasm...متن کامل
Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi are the parasites that infect humans. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause most of the malarial infections worldwide. Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi are susceptible to chloroquine. Chloroquine was the world's most widely used antim...متن کامل
Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin which is approved in Europe and in the USA. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves cefepime in the treatment of febrile neutropenia. Cefepime is active against gram-negative microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Morganella, Neisseria, Serratia, and Proteus species. Cefepime is also active aga...متن کامل
In vitro antimalarial activity of azithromycin, artesunate, and quinine in combination and correlation with clinical outcome.
Azithromycin when used in combination with faster-acting antimalarials has proven efficacious in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria in phase 2 clinical trials. The aim of this study was to establish optimal combination ratios for azithromycin in combination with either dihydroartemisinin or quinine, to determine the clinical correlates of in vitro drug sensitivity for these compounds, and t...متن کامل
Previous studies have shown that the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole has antimalarial activity in vitro. The interactions of omeprazole with commonly used antimalarial drugs were assessed in vitro. Omeprazole and quinine combinations were synergistic; however, chloroquine and omeprazole combinations were antagonistic. Artemisinin drugs had additive antimalarial activities with omeprazole.متن کامل
چکیده یکی از مهمترین دغدغه های بزرگ جوامع بشری، از دیر باز تا کنون که ذهن پژوهشگران و متخصصان بهداشت روانی و اجتماعی و دولتها رابه خود مشغول داشته، مسأله ی بزهکاری می باشد. شناخت کامل پدیده ی بزهکاری و بزهکار، علل وعوامل سقوط یک انسان، چگونگی درمان وی و درنهایت پیشگیری ازبزهکاری ودریک کلام سالم سازی یک جامعه، رسالت عظیم، انسانی ومقدسی می باشد که با بررسی شخصیت مجرم یعنی[ انسانی که تحت شرای...15 صفحه اول
دوره 6 شماره 4
صفحات 7451- 7465
تاریخ انتشار 2018-04-01
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