Intrinsic Value: Towards A Pragmatic Theory
Intrinsic value is a concept central to the environmentalist movement. Whether one believes that natural objects have intrinsic value is supposed to determine whether one takes a ecocentric or homocentric approach to environmentalism, whether we practice deep or (merely) shallow ecology. Yet this concept is also a center of controversy and confusion. Just what does it mean for something to have intrinsic value? Is it the same thing as inherent value? Is it "objective" value? What of extrinsic, or, instrumental value? Is it somehow less objective? Questions such as these will be the subject of my paper. After a brief historical analysis of the relevant concepts, I shall consider the problem in the context of a wetland in the intercoastal waterway of Northeast Florida and propose a theory of intrinsic value based on the philosophy of John Dewey and George Herbert Mead.[i] Although we're unlikely to reach full agreement on some of these questions, I believe that we can come to agree enough on the intrinsic value of our environment to build a consensus in public policy. [i]. For the most exhaustive statement of the philosophy of nature relied on here see G.H. Mead, Philosophy of the Act, Charles Morris ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1938). For John Dewey's version, see Dewey , 1929, Experience and Nature, 2nd ed. (La Salle: Open Court).
In this article, in order to demonstrate the pragmatic elements of Rawls’s viewpoint, the developmental path of his A Theory of Justice shall first be investigated. This development has two phases: In the first phase, justice has an ethical-philosophical basis. In A Theory of Justice, this phase is specifically shown under the title of theory of justice. In the second phase, justice has no phil...متن کامل
This paper develops a qualitative, logical, theory of induction. It begins with Hempel’s attempt to produce a “purely syntactical” theory of confirmation and the demise of this attempt as a result of Goodman’s paradox. Ideas from the informal, pragmatic, solutions to this paradox proposed by Goodman and Quine are then adopted, adapted and extended in order to produce a formal, pragmatic theory ...متن کامل
Bayesian approaches to reasoning under uncertainty have gained substantially in popularity recently, due to the efforts of AI researchers and statisticians to find tractable means of probability propagation in restricted domains, namely those properly described by causal (Bayesian) networks (cf. Pearl 1988 and Neapolitan 1990). Most Bayesians are satisfied with such an approach to automating Ba...متن کامل
This paper presents a pragmatic approach to Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) in an attempt to address the pragmatic limitations of DRT (Werth 1999; Simons 2003). To achieve a more pragmatic DRT model, this paper extends standard DRT framework to incorporate more pragmatic elements such as representing agents’ cognitive states and the complex process through which agents recognize utterance...متن کامل
according to utility theory, people should not allow the _____ of a choice to affect people seem not to have pragmatic reasoning schemata that apply. ical evidence for pragmatic reasoning schema theory comes from performance ory, pragmatic reasoning schemas are abstracted from everyday experience. parts of Cheng and Holyoak's pragmatic reasoning schemas are those about people. However, Cosmides...متن کامل
Generalizations about categories are central to human understanding, and generic language (e.g. Dogs bark.) provides a simple and ubiquitous way to communicate these generalizations. Yet the meaning of generic language is philosophically puzzling and has resisted precise formalization. We explore the idea that the core meaning of a generic sentence is simple but underspecified, and that general...متن کامل
دوره 37 شماره 2
صفحات 107- 123
تاریخ انتشار 2009-11-22
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