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نتایج جستجو برای vocabulary

تعداد نتایج: 17788  
2007
Antti Puurula, Mikko Kurimo,

Speech recognition in many morphologically rich languages suffers from a very high out-of-vocabulary (OOV) ratio. Earlier work has shown that vocabulary decomposition methods can practically solve this problem for a subset of these languages. This paper compares various vocabulary decomposition approaches to open vocabulary speech recognition, using Estonian speech recognition as a benchmark. C...

Journal: :Child development 2012
Meredith L Rowe, Stephen W Raudenbush, Susan Goldin-Meadow,

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth b...

1992
Hsiao-Wuen Hon, Kai-Fu Lee,

In this paper, we are looking into the adaptation issues of vocabulary-independent (VI) systems. Just as with speakeradaptation in speaker-independent system, two vocabulary adaptation algorithms [5] are implemented in order to tailor the VI subword models to the target vocabulary. The first algorithm is to generate vocabulary-adapted clustering decision trees by focusing on relevant allophones...

2012
Su-Youn Yoon, Suma Bhat, Klaus Zechner,

This study presents a method that assesses ESL learners’ vocabulary usage to improve an automated scoring system of spontaneous speech responses by non-native English speakers. Focusing on vocabulary sophistication, we estimate the difficulty of each word in the vocabulary based on its frequency in a reference corpus and assess the mean difficulty level of the vocabulary usage across the respon...

The importance of vocabulary is undeniable. EFL learners need sufficient lexicon in order to bea competitive speaker. Lots of strategies have been proposed. The concept of involvement loadwas first introduced by Hulstijn and Laufer (2001). They believed that deeper explanation oflexical information will result in better retention of them. The present study aimed at finding the...

Journal: :Journal of theoretical biology 2004
Kenny Smith,

Human language is unique among the communication systems of the natural world. The vocabulary of human language is unique in being both culturally transmitted and symbolic. In this paper I present an investigation into the factors involved in the evolution of such vocabulary systems. I investigate both the cultural evolution of vocabulary systems and the biological evolution of learning rules f...

2005
Jens Hartmann, Raúl Palma,

Ontologies have seen quite an enormous development and application in many domains within the last years, especially in the context of the next web generation, the Semantic Web. Besides the work of countless researchers across the world, industry starts developing ontologies to support their daily operative business. Currently, most ontologies exist in pure form without any additional informati...

Journal: :Journal of studies on alcohol 1981
H G Levine,

HE DITORS of the Dictionary o] American Slang (1, p. 652) report that "the concept having the most slang synonyms is drunk." The Dictionary lists 353 terms, with more added in the Appendix. In 1737 Benjamin Franklin compiled a list of 228 terms for being drunk (2). The American Thesaurus o] Slang (3) lists dose to 900 terms. 3 Obviously, Americans, like many other peoples of the world, have tak...