critical period effects in foreign language learning:the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of reading,writing, and grammar in english as a foreign language
since the 1960s the age effects on learning both first and second language have been explored by many linguists and applied linguists (e.g lennerberg, 1967; schachter, 1996; long, 1990) and the existence of critical period for language acquisition was found to be a common ground of all these studies. in spite of some common findings, some issues about the impacts of age on acquiring a second or foreign language are still in controversy. while some believe in the superiority of early beginners to late beginners and the impossibility of acquiring native like proficiency in a second language after the age of puberty, others have opposite ideas. this study was an attempt to investigate the impacts of age on learning reading, writing, and grammar of english as a foreign language in iranian context. to carry out the study, 60 kurdish-persian english language learners in iran language institute of kermanshah were selected and their achievements in reading, writing, and the structure of english language were measured through reading, writing, and grammaticality judgment tests. both descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test) were used to analyze the data of the study. the results indicate that early beginners are better than late-beginners. in fact, age negatively correlates with reading, writing, and grammar learning ability.
the effectiveness of strategy-based instruction in teaching english as a second or foreign language: a meta-analysis of experimental studies
a large number of single research studies on the effects of strategy-based instruction (sbi) in teaching english as a foreign or second language has been conducted so far. however, the lack of a comprehensive meta-analysis targeting the effectiveness of english language sbi is observed. moreover, the findings of experimental studies regarding the context of the english language, proficiency lev...
achievement in foreign language learning contex the impacts of teachers self-disclosure on students anxiety, attitude and achievement in fireign language learning context
this study was designed to investigate the impacts of teachers self-disclosure on students foreign language classroom anxiety, attitude to english language learning and their achievement scores at the end of the term. there were 48 female learners of intermediate level. they were not randomly selected. there were one experimental group with 21 students and one control group with 27 students.the...
effects of first language on second language writing-a preliminary contrastive rhetoric study of farsi and english
to explore the idea the investingation proposed, aimed at finding whether the performances of the population of iranians students studying english in an efl context are consistent in l1 and l2 writing taks and whether there is a cross-linguistic transfer in this respect. in this regard the subjects were instructed to write four compositions-two in english and two in farsi-which consisted of an ...15 صفحه اول
focus on communication in iranian high school language classes: a study of the role of teaching materials in changing the focus onto communication in language classes
چکیده ارتباط در کلاس به عوامل زیادی از جمله معلمان، دانش آموزان، برنامه های درسی و از همه مهم تر، مواد آموزشی وابسته است. در تدریس ارتباطی زبان که تاکید زیادی بر توانش ارتباطی دارد، کتاب درسی به عنوان عامل موثر بر پویایی کلاس محسوب میگردد که درس ها را از طریق فراهم آوردن متن ارتباط کلاسی و هم چنین نوع تمرین زبانی که دانش آموزان در طول فعالیت های کلاسی به آن مشغول اند، کنترل می کند. این حقیقت ک...15 صفحه اول
The age factor has always been one of the main concerns in SLA research. However, the focus is no longer on the issue of whether there exists a critical period, as was the case in the 70s and 80s, but rather on the appropriate age to begin instruction in the L2. This trend is specially relevant in foreign language acquisition contexts all over Europe and clearly evident in Spain, where the Refo...متن کامل
Use of Articles in Learning English as a Foreign Language: A Study of Iranian English Undergraduates
The significance of error analysis for the learner, the teacher and the researcher is now widely recognized. Earlier studies of error analysis concentrated on intersystematic comparison of the “native language” and the “target language” and drew the required data largely from intuitions and impressionistic observations. This study was conducted on the basis of the following observations: (1) to...متن کامل