f/sla from learner perspectives: a social activity or a cognitive process
in the past couple of decades sociocultural theory of sla and its implications in efl contexts have attracted attentions of research circles worldwide and aroused some controversies. firth and wagner (1997) have questioned the principles of the cognitive view which gives importance to mental constructs in favor of sociocultural view which highlights social and contextual constructs. but if sociocultural view considers social-contextual factors as important as individual cognitive factors, what will the learners own perspective be in this respect? how do learners look at language or language learning, as a social phenomenon or cognitive one? in this study we explore learners’ attitudes towards the language as a cognitive-individual or social-contextual phenomenon and the way their learning is affected differentially by the two perspectives in language teaching. furthermore, the traces of english as a lingua franca (elf) are witnessed in this study. accordingly, the implications of elf context will be meticulously scrutinized. to this end, 9-month diaries of 30 male high school students and their teacher in one of the rural schools of zanjan, iran, who apart from their school classes, regular classes, optionally participated in an out-of-school class after regular school hours. it should be noted that in school situation learners were involved mostly in cognitive activities like any other learning discipline in school, whereas in out-of-school situation they looked at learning as a kind of social activity, being taught by the same teacher and following the same syllabus. the interpretation of diaries, using metaphor analysis, suggests that as the nature of these two classes are different, learner’s perspective towards the learning english was different too. in the first class students looked at language as a means to fulfill their educational purposes like success in university entrance exams, whereas in the other class they were trying to be socialized, being able to communicate with some japanese and german engineers working in their village. my findings show that the difference in learner’s perspective can affect the way of their language learning. furthermore, in this piece of qualitative study, elf contexts in compared with efl contexts provided more outlets for language socialization of the learners.
Social activity networks are formed from activities among users (such as wall posts, tweets, emails, and etc.), where any activity between two users results in an addition of an edge to the network graph. These networks are streaming and include massive volume of edges. A streaming graph is considered to be a stream of edges that continuously evolves over time. This paper proposes a sampling al...متن کامل
Individual Learner Differences In Web-based Learning Environments: From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives
Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main purpose was to identify differences in learners’ characteristics such as cognitive, affective, physiological and social factors that affect learn...متن کامل
اتانول کاربردهای متنوعی در صنایع لاستیک سازی، رنگسازی، حلالها ومکمل سوخت خودرو دارد. اتانول برخلاف نفت از جمله مواد تجدیدپذیر محسوب می شود که مشکلات زیست محیطی و آلودگی نیز ایجاد نمی کند. استفاده از اتانول به عنوان مکمل سوختخودروها از جمله مهمترین مصارف صنعتی این ماده بشمار می رود. با توجه به این موضوع تحقیق و توسعه در زمینه تولید اتانول با درجه خلوص بالا در سطح جهان، و نه تنها در کشور های پیشر...
Editor's Note: These short, critical reviews of recent papers in the Journal, written exclusively by graduate students or postdoctoral fellows, are intended to summarize the important findings of the paper and provide additional insight and commentary. For more information on the format and purpose of the Journal Club, please see Review of Mahrt et al. Language is unique to humans. As a result ...متن کامل
This study aimed at bringing into light the various aspects of the impact of e-learning on the EFLlearners and Teachers and the level of their satisfaction with the outcome of their implementationof e-learning in their classes. The participants consisted of EFL students and teachers that theyselected randomly from ELT teachers and learners of Shokoh institute in Zanjan. 100 studentsand 20 teach...متن کامل
Human beings are the most imitative creatures in the animal kingdom. Imitation has both cognitive and social aspects and is a powerful mechanism for learning about and from people. Imitation raises theoretical questions about perception-action coupling, memory, representation, social cognition, and social affinities toward others "like me." Childhood imitation is attracting attention both withi...متن کامل