The Direct and Indirect Effects of Gratitude and Optimism on the Marital Satisfaction
Objective: The major focus of present literature on marital satisfaction is about the processes that weaken it in couples. In contrast, positive factors that may contribute to the prosperity of couples’ relationships are less widely considered. Gratitude is one of the factors that its role and in particular, the pathways that associate it to marital satisfaction are not studied. The current study aimed at investigating the direct and indirect effects of gratitude and optimism on marital satisfaction. Methods: The current cross-sectional study using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was conducted on 241 married female teachers. The data collection was performed using the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction (EMS), Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6), and Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R). Amos -24 and SPSS V. 24 software packages were applied for data analysis. Bootstrap in Preacher and Hayes’ Macro program was used for testing mediation. Results: Results indicated that the model with some modification had a good fit with the data (/DF=1.86, GFI=0.95, IFI=0.97, CFI=0.97, NFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.06). The gratitude had a positive direct effect on marital satisfaction (β=0.32, p<0.05) and optimism (β=0.57, p<0.05). Optimism had a positive direct effect on marital satisfaction (β=0.50, p<0.05). The gratitude had a positive indirect effect on marital satisfaction via optimism (p<0.05). Conclusion: Gratitude, directly and indirectly, through increased optimism, is associated with higher marital satisfaction. The current study results showed a stage into a better understanding of positive processes that can protect couples against marital dissatisfaction; counselors can help couples in attaining and keeping marital satisfaction via the training and enhancement of gratitude.
the effects of planning on accuracy and complexity of iranian efl students’ written narrative task performance
this study compared the different effects of form-focused guided planning vs. meaning-focused guided planning on iranian pre-intermediate students’ task performance. the study lasted for three weeks and concentrated on eight english structures. forty five pre-intermediate iranian students were randomly assigned to three groups of guided planning focus-on-form group (gpfg), guided planning focus...15 صفحه اول
the effects of multiple intelligences (focus on musical, visual, and linguistic) and direct instruction on learning grammar: a case on iranian efl students at elementary level
1.0 overview it seems that grammar plays a crucial role in the area of second and foreign language learning and widely has been acknowledged in grammar research. in other words, teaching grammar is an issue which has attracted much attention to itself, and a lot of teachers argue about the existence of grammar in language teaching and learning. this issue will remind us a famous sentence f...
هدف اصلی این تحقیق بررسی تاثیر برنامه ریزی زمانی، هم چنین افزایش میزان پیچیدگی تکالیف در نظر گرفته شده بصورت همزمان، بر دقت و صحت و پیچیدگی عملکرد نوشتاری زبان آموزان می باشد. بدین منظور، 50 نفر از دانش آموزان دختر در رده ی سنی 16 الی 18 سال به عنوان شرکت کنندگان در این زمینه ی تحقیق در نظر گرفته شدند و به دو گروه آزمایشی و کنترل بصورت اتفاقی تقسیم شدند. اعضای گروه آزمایشی هر دو تکلیف ساده و پی...
the effects of collaborative strategic reading and direct instruction in persuasion on iranian second grade of high school students persuasive writing and attitudes
this study examined the effects of collaborative strategic reading and direct instruction in persuasion on iranian high school students persuasive writing and attitudes. students in three intact classes were assigned to one of three treatment conditions: collaborative strategic reading and direct instruction in persuasion or direct instruction in persuasion or a control group. treatment effects...
the effects of previewing and providing background knowledge on iranian university efl learners’ comprehension of literary and academic texts
abstract poor reading comprehension can result in failure in using references, benefiting from professional gatherings and resources, keeping up with the growing body of knowledge in the virtual world of the internet, and failing to achieve in efl programs. the purpose of the present quasi-experimental study was to explore the effects of background knowledge and previewing narrative and expos...15 صفحه اول
the effects of speech rate,prosodic features, and blurred speech on iranian efl learners listening comprehension
کلید واژه ها به زبان انگلیسی: effect of speech rate on listening comprehension, blurred speech,segmental and suprasegmental features,authentic speech,intelligibility, discrimination, omission, assimilation چکیده: سرعت مطالب شنیداری در کلام پیوسته بطور کلی همواره کابوسی بوده برای یادگیرنده های زبان دوم و بالاخص برای شنوندگان ایرانی. علی رغم عقل سلیم که کلام با سرعت کندتری فعالیتهای درک مطلب شن...15 صفحه اول
دوره 7 شماره 3
صفحات 215- 224
تاریخ انتشار 2019-06
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