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حسین حسین زاده

استاد گروه فارماکودینامیک و سم شناسی، دانشکده داروسازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، ایران

[ 1 ] - بررسی اثر ضد میکروبی عصاره آبی و الکلی کلاله زعفران بر روی میکروب های پاتوژن دهان (استرپتوکوک موتانس، لاکتوباسیل،کاندیدا آلبیکنس)

مقدمه: پوسیدگی دندانی یک بیماری عفونی است که میکروارگانیسم های مختلفی در ایجاد و پیشرفت آن نقش دارند. داروهایی که برای کاهش میکروب ها مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند دارای عوارض جانبی می باشند. بنابراین جستجو برای مواد ضدمیکروبی که حداقل عوارض جانبی را داشته باشند، ضروری است. لذا هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر ضدمیکروبی عصاره آبی و الکلی زعفران بر میکروب های بیماری زا حفره دهان می باشد. مواد و روش ها: ...

[ 2 ] - A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials on saffron (Crocus sativus) effectiveness and safety on erectile dysfunction and semen parameters

Objective: We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis study to determine saffron (Crocus sativus) effectiveness and safety in male infertility problems. Materials and Methods: The databases PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar, SID, IranMedex and Magiran until July 2016 and reference section of relevant articles, were searched to find both English and Persian clinical trials on m...

[ 3 ] - In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of verbascoside, lemon verbena extract and caffeine in combination with gentamicin against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli clinical isolates

Objective: In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using herbal products to overcome bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lemon verbena aqueous extract, verbascoside and caffeine in combination with gentamicin against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains. Materials and Methods: The MIC and ...

[ 4 ] - Protective effect of crocin against d-galactose-induced aging in mice

Objective: Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon, which attribute to different diseases and abnormalities in living systems. Oxidative stress, which is an important factor in aging, exacerbates this process via different mechanisms. Crocin (CR), one of the active components of saffron showed strong antioxidant effects. In the present study, anti-aging property of crocin was investigated in mice....

[ 5 ] - Anti-anxiety and hypnotic effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Lippia citriodora leaves and verbascoside in mice

Objectives: The extract of Lippia citriodora and its main component, verbascoside, are known for their hypnotic effects in traditional medicine. In this study, the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of L. citriodora leave extracts and verbascoside were evaluated in mice. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into 11 groups of six mice each. Group I received normal saline, Group II received ...

[ 6 ] - Effect of linalool on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice

Objective: The effect of linalool, a terpene alcohol found in many plants, which inhibits NMDA receptors, on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was evaluated in mice.Material and Methods: The effects of different doses of linalool (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.), memantine (20 mg/kg, an NMDA receptor antagonist) and saline, in CPP induced by 4...

[ 7 ] - Anticonvulsant effect of Satureja hortensis L. aerial parts extracts in mice

Objective: Regarding the anticonvulsant effects of Satureja hortensis (S. hortensis) in Avicenna’s book: canon of medicine; the present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti- eplileptic effects of S. hortensis aqueous and ethanolic aerial part extracts. Furthermore, the mechanisms of their anticonvulsant activities were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Seizure was induced by Pentylen...

[ 8 ] - Teratogenic effect of Lippia citriodora leaves aqueous extract in mice

Objective: Safety of Lippia citriodora, as a herbal remedy, in pregnancy has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to identify the effect of L. citriodora aqueous extract on pregnancy outcome in mice. Materials and Methods: Timed-pregnant mice received doses of 0.5 g/kg/day L. citriodora aqueous extract or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. Maternal body weights wer...

[ 9 ] - Effects of berberine on acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice

Objective: It has been shown that berberine, a major component of Berberis vulgaris extract, modulates the activity of several neurotransmitter systems including dopamine (Da) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) contributing to rewarding and reinforcing effects of morphine. Drug craving and relapsing even after a long time of abstinence therapy are the most important problems of addiction. In the p...

[ 10 ] - Attenuation of morphine tolerance and dependence by thymoquinone in mice

Objectives: Dependence and tolerance are major restricting factors in the clinical use of opioid analgesics. In the present study, the effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, on morphine dependence and tolerance were investigated in mice. Materials and Methods: Male adult NMRI mice were made tolerant and dependent by repeated injections of morphine (50, 50, and 7...

[ 11 ] - Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using...

[ 12 ] - Traditional Chinese and Indian medicine in the treatment of opioid-dependence: a review

Objective: In this study, the current literatures on the use of herbs and herbal preparations of Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicine for the treatment of opioid addiction were reviewed. Methods: Search was done in databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, and Google Scholar. Results: Among 18 retrieved studies, 3 studies were about asafetida extract, an approved prep...

[ 13 ] - A review of the effects of Capsicum annuum L. and its constituent, capsaicin, in metabolic syndrome

Objective(s): Metabolic syndrome, a coexisting of high blood glucose, obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease occurrence and mortality. Recently, there is a rising demand for herbal drugs which have less adverse effects and have shown more beneficial effects in comparison with synthetic options. Red pepper, with the scientific name of Capsi...

[ 14 ] - Medicinal herbs in the treatment of neuropathic pain: a review

Chronic neuropathic pain is a common significant and debilitating problem that presents a major challenge to health-care. Despite the large number of available drugs, there are no curative conventional treatments for neuropathic pain. Nowadays, more attention has been focused on the herbal formulation in the field of drug discovery. Therefore, we performed an extensive review about herbal drugs...

[ 15 ] - Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review

Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic...

[ 16 ] - Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

Objective(s):Acrylamide (ACR) has many applications in different industries. ACR damages the central and the peripheral nervous system in human and animals. Importance of ACR-induced neurotoxicity encouraged researchers to find both different mechanisms involved in ACR neurotoxicity and potent neuroprotective agents. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of cro...

[ 17 ] - Saffron Induced Relaxation in Isolated Rat Aorta via Endothelium Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a widely used food additive for its color and taste. The hypotensive effects of saffron have been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of vasodilatory effects induced by saffron on isolated rat aorta.To study the vasodilatory effects of saffron aqueous extract (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL), isolated rat thoracic aorta rings were co...

[ 18 ] - Crocin Prevents Sub-Cellular Organelle Damage, Proteolysis and Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes: A Justification for Its Hepatoprotection

Crocin, the main constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), is a natural carotenoid which is known for its antioxidant activity. Liver as the organ that metabolizes many chemicals is one of the first position that is at risk of environmental pollutants. It is clear that compounds that exhibit antioxidant properties, scavenging of free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation are expected ...

[ 19 ] - Study of the role of CREB, BDNF, and VGF neuropeptide in long term antidepressant activity of crocin in the rat cerebellum

Antidepressant activity of crocin, saffron main component, has been established before. Based on previous study, it is suggested that elevation in the levels of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), CREB (cAMP response element binding) and VGF neuropeptide could be considered as one probable molecular mechanisms involved in antidepressant activity of long term crocin administration in the r...

[ 20 ] - Black Seed (Nigella Sativa) and its Constituent Thymoquinone as an Antidote or a Protective Agent Against Natural or Chemical Toxicities

Nigella sativa (N. sativa), which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. N. sativa seeds and oil have been used in the treatment of different diseases. Various studies on N. sativa have been carried out and a broad spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been established which include antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, ant...

[ 21 ] - Enhancement of Antinociceptive Effect by Co-administration of Amitriptyline and Crocus sativus in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-nociceptive effects of a low, sub-effective dose of amitriptyline, in combination with the different doses of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Amitriptyline (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) and the extracts (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.), were separately administered at the ...

[ 22 ] - Teratogenic Effect of Verbascoside, Main Constituent of Lippia citriodora Leaves, in Mice

Verbascoside (acteoside), a phenyl propanoid glycoside, comprises 0.5 to 3.5% dry weight of Lippia citriodora leaves. A wide range of biological activities are attributed to verbascoside including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-fungal, photoprotective as well as chelating effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of verbascoside on pregnanc...

[ 23 ] - The Effect of Chronic Administration of Safranal on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, exhibits different pharmacological activities. In this study, the effects of safranal, on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) - salt induced hypertensive rats in chronic administration were investigated. Three doses of safranal (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/kg/day) were administra...

[ 24 ] - Failure of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion to Reduce Diazinon-induced Acute Toxicity: a Pilot Study in Rats

  Diazinon (DZN) is a synthetic organophosphorus (OPs) insecticide widely used in agricultural and household applications. OPs, particularly DZN, are highly lipid soluble liquids. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to reduce toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. We evaluated the antidote effect of ILE on acute toxicity of DZN. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats weightin...

[ 25 ] - Acute and Subacute Toxicity of Safranal, a Constituent of Saffron, in Mice and Rats

The acute and sub-acute toxicity of safranal were studied in rat and mice within 2 and 21 days after exposure, respectively. For subacute toxicity, changes in weight as well as biochemical, hematological and pathological parameters were studied. The intraperitoneal LD50 values of safranal were 1.48 mL/kg in male mice, 1.88 mL/kg in female mice and 1.50 mL/kg in male rats. Oral LD50 values were ...

[ 26 ] - Antioxidant Activity of Pistacia vera Fruits, Leaves and Gum Extracts

The side effects of synthetic antioxidants have been considered in different studies. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest toward the use of natural substances instead of the synthetic ones. In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia vera leaves and fruits as well as hydroalcoholic extract of gum were tested for a possible antioxidant activity using in vitro methods. ...

[ 27 ] - Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Pistacia vera Leaf Extract in Mice

Pistacia vera L., a member of Anacardiaceae family, has been used for sedation and analgesia in traditional medicine. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects as well as acute toxicity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. vera leaves were investigated in mice. The antinociceptive activity was studied using hot plate and writhing tests. The effect of the extracts a...

[ 28 ] - Saffron Induced Relaxation in Isolated Rat Aorta via Endothelium Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a widely used food additive for its color and taste. The hypotensive effects of saffron have been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of vasodilatory effects induced by saffron on isolated rat aorta.To study the vasodilatory effects of saffron aqueous extract (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL), isolated rat thoracic aorta rings were co...

[ 29 ] - Crocin Prevents Sub-Cellular Organelle Damage, Proteolysis and Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes: A Justification for Its Hepatoprotection

Crocin, the main constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), is a natural carotenoid which is known for its antioxidant activity. Liver as the organ that metabolizes many chemicals is one of the first position that is at risk of environmental pollutants. It is clear that compounds that exhibit antioxidant properties, scavenging of free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation are expected ...

[ 30 ] - Study of the role of CREB, BDNF, and VGF neuropeptide in long term antidepressant activity of crocin in the rat cerebellum

Antidepressant activity of crocin, saffron main component, has been established before. Based on previous study, it is suggested that elevation in the levels of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), CREB (cAMP response element binding) and VGF neuropeptide could be considered as one probable molecular mechanisms involved in antidepressant activity of long term crocin administration in the r...

[ 31 ] - Black Seed (Nigella Sativa) and its Constituent Thymoquinone as an Antidote or a Protective Agent Against Natural or Chemical Toxicities

Nigella sativa (N. sativa), which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. N. sativa seeds and oil have been used in the treatment of different diseases. Various studies on N. sativa have been carried out and a broad spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been established which include antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, ant...

[ 32 ] - Enhancement of Antinociceptive Effect by Co-administration of Amitriptyline and Crocus sativus in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-nociceptive effects of a low, sub-effective dose of amitriptyline, in combination with the different doses of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Amitriptyline (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) and the extracts (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.), were separately administered at the ...

[ 33 ] - Teratogenic Effect of Verbascoside, Main Constituent of Lippia citriodora Leaves, in Mice

Verbascoside (acteoside), a phenyl propanoid glycoside, comprises 0.5 to 3.5% dry weight of Lippia citriodora leaves. A wide range of biological activities are attributed to verbascoside including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-fungal, photoprotective as well as chelating effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of verbascoside on pregnanc...

[ 34 ] - The Effect of Chronic Administration of Safranal on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, exhibits different pharmacological activities. In this study, the effects of safranal, on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) - salt induced hypertensive rats in chronic administration were investigated. Three doses of safranal (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/kg/day) were administra...

[ 35 ] - Failure of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion to Reduce Diazinon-induced Acute Toxicity: a Pilot Study in Rats

  Diazinon (DZN) is a synthetic organophosphorus (OPs) insecticide widely used in agricultural and household applications. OPs, particularly DZN, are highly lipid soluble liquids. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to reduce toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. We evaluated the antidote effect of ILE on acute toxicity of DZN. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats weightin...

[ 36 ] - Acute and Subacute Toxicity of Safranal, a Constituent of Saffron, in Mice and Rats

The acute and sub-acute toxicity of safranal were studied in rat and mice within 2 and 21 days after exposure, respectively. For subacute toxicity, changes in weight as well as biochemical, hematological and pathological parameters were studied. The intraperitoneal LD50 values of safranal were 1.48 mL/kg in male mice, 1.88 mL/kg in female mice and 1.50 mL/kg in male rats. Oral LD50 values were ...

[ 37 ] - Antioxidant Activity of Pistacia vera Fruits, Leaves and Gum Extracts

The side effects of synthetic antioxidants have been considered in different studies. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest toward the use of natural substances instead of the synthetic ones. In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia vera leaves and fruits as well as hydroalcoholic extract of gum were tested for a possible antioxidant activity using in vitro methods. ...

[ 38 ] - Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Pistacia vera Leaf Extract in Mice

Pistacia vera L., a member of Anacardiaceae family, has been used for sedation and analgesia in traditional medicine. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects as well as acute toxicity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. vera leaves were investigated in mice. The antinociceptive activity was studied using hot plate and writhing tests. The effect of the extracts a...

[ 39 ] - بررسی اثر شل‌کنندگی عضلانی، ضداضطرابی و خواب‌آوری عصاره هیدروالکلی صمغ پسته Pistacia vera L.)) در موش سوری

مقدمه: صمغ پسته از دیر باز در طب سنتی مورد استفاده بوده است. حالات خواب آلودگی از صمغ پسته‌ (Pistacia vera L.) در مطالعات قبلی مشاهده شده است. هدف: در این تحقیق اثرات تزریق داخل صفاقی عصاره هیدروالکلی صمغ پسته بر شلی عضلانی، خواب و اضطراب موش سوری بررسی شد. روش بررسی: اثر صمغ پسته بر تعادل حرکتی و شل‌کنندگی عضلانی به دو روش میله چرخان و بارفیکس،30 و 60 دقیقه پس از تزریق مواد بررسی شد. در آزم...

[ 40 ] - بررسی اثرات فراکسیون‌های اندام‌های هوایی گیاه رزماری طبی (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) بر سندرم محرومیت ناشی از مرفین در موش سوری

مقدمه: تحقیقات قبلی ما نشان داد که سندروم محرومیت به مورفین توسط عصاره‌های تام آبی و الکلی رزماری مهار می‌شود. هدف: با توجه به تداخل عصاره تام گیاه رزماری طبی با سیستم اپیوییدی اثرات فراکسیون‌های عصاره این گیاه بر روی علایم سندرم محرومیت به مورفین بررسی شد. روش بررسی: برای ایجاد اعتیاد در موش‌ها، حیوانات تحت سه بار تزریق زیرجلدی مرفین در روز (mg/kg 50، mg/kg 50 و mg/kg 75) به مدت سه روز قرار ...

[ 41 ] - بررسی اثر ضداضطرابی عصاره‌های آبی و الکلی برگ گیاه نوروزک (Salvia leriifolia Benth.) به روش ماز صلیبی شکل (Elevated Plus Maze) در موش

مقدمه: نوروزک از خانواده نعناع بومی شرق ایران و قسمت‌هایی از افغانستان است. اثرات فارماکولوژی متعدد آن مانند اثر ضددردی، ضدالتهابی، ضدایسکمی، ضدافزایش قند خون، خواب‌آور، شلی عضلانی، ضدزخم معده و ضدتشنج تاکنون مشخص شده است. هدف: در این تحقیق اثر ضداضطرابی عصاره‌های آبی و الکلی برگ گیاه نوروزک با کمک دستگاه ماز صلیبی شکل2 بررسی شد. روش بررسی: از موش‌های سوری نر در 9 گروه 10 - 7 تایی برای آزمون...

[ 42 ] - بررسی اثر زعفران و مواد موثره آن، سافرانال و کروسین، بر روی حافظه سالم و تخریب شده با هیوسین بر یادگیری فضایی در موش صحرایی

مقدمه: بررسی‌های رفتاری و الکتروفیزیولوژی نشان می‌دهند که عصاره زعفران اختلالات حافظه ناشی از تجویز اتانل را بهبود می‌بخشد. هدف: در این تحقیق اثرات تزریق داخل صفاقی عصاره آبی زعفران و دو ماده موثره آن یعنی کروسین و سافرانال بر روی حافظه سالم و حافظه تخریب شده با هیوسین به روش ماز آبی موریس در موش صحرایی بررسی شد. روش بررسی: هر موش به مدت 5 روز و هر روز یک نوبت (هر نوبت شامل 4 تجربه) از 4 ربع ...

[ 43 ] - بررسی اثر ضد تومور و سیتوتوکسیسیتی کلاله و گلبرگ زعفران به روش دیسک سیب‌زمینی و میگوی آب شور

مقدمه: تحقیقات فراوانی اثر ضدسرطانی کلاله زعفران را نشان داده است. هدف: هدف از این مطالعه بررسی سمیت و اثر ضدتوموری عصاره‌های خیسانده الکلی کلاله و گلبرک زعفران به روش‌های ساده میگوی آب شور و سنجش دیسک سیب‌زمینی با میکروب اگروباکتریوم تومه فشنز بود. روش بررسی: برای بررسی فعالیت ضدباکتری اگروباکتریوم تومه فشنز توسط عصاره‌ها آزمون MIC به روش میکروپلیت انجام گرفت. در روش بررسی اثر ضد توموری، دیس...

[ 44 ] - بررسی اثرات داروشناسی و سم‌شناسی سیاهدانه

سیاهدانه گیاهی یک‌ساله از خانواده آلاله است که فلور طبیعی جنوب اروپا، شمال آفریقا و جنوب غربی آسیا می‌باشد. دانه این گیاه حاوی روغن، پروتئین، آلکالوئید (مثل نیجلیسین و نیجلیدین)، کینون‌ها (مانند تیموکینون)، ساپونین و اسانس فرار است. در طب سنتی برای چندین بیماری استفاده می‌شود که از جمله به عنوان ضد‌کرم و جهت مشکلات قاعدگی، آسم، دیابت، سرفه بوده، ادرارآور و شیر افزاست. اثرات فارماکولوژیکی و زیست...

[ 45 ] - بررسی اثر ضد‌تهوعی عصاره ریشه و ریزوم سنبل‌الطیب در جوجه

مقدمه: در طب قدیم، از ریشه و ریزوم سنبل‌الطیب (والریان) در درمان اسپاسم‌های روده‏ای، کولیک و حالت‌های عصبی گوارشی به عنوان آرام‌کننده حرکات سیستم گوارش استفاده می‏شده و جهت تخفیف تهوع نیز توصیه شده است. هدف: هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر ضدتهوعی عصاره آبی - الکلی ریشه و ریزوم والریان در راستای مستندسازی گزارش‌های موجود در طب سنتی بوده است. روش بررسی: اثر ضدتهوعی عصاره آبی - الکلی ریشه و ریزوم ...

[ 46 ] - بررسی اثر فراکسیون‌های اتیل استاتی و ان - بوتانلی «کندر» بر حافظه و یادگیری رت به روش ماز آبی موریس

مقدمه: کندر، صمغ به دست آمده از گیاه Boswellia carterii از دیرباز در طب سنتی مورداستفاده بوده و به عنوان افزایش‌دهنده حافظه و مهارت‌های یادگیری استفاده می‌شده است. هدف: در این تحقیق اثرات تزریق داخل صفاقی فراکسیون‌های کندر روی حافظه سالم و حافظه تخریب شده با هیوسین به روش ماز آبی موریس در رت بررسی شد. روش بررسی: هر رت به مدت 5 روز و هر روز یک نوبت (هر نوبت شامل 4 تجربه) از 4 ربع حوضچه ماز به...

[ 47 ] - بررسی اثرات فراکسیون‌های عصاره گیاه ریحان Ocimum bacilicum بر سندرم محرومیت مرفین در موش

  مقدمه : اثر ضددردی گیاه ریحان به اثبات رسیده است. این اثر گیاه در روش صفحه داغ، توسط نالوکسان مهار شده است.   هدف : به منظور مشخص نمودن اجزای مؤثر و فعال عصاره تام گیاه ریحان در کاهش علایم سندرم محرومیت مرفین که با نالوکسان القاء شد، فراکسیون‌سازی عصاره تام صورت گرفت.   روش بررسی: برای ایجاد وابستگی، موش را به مدت سه روز به صورت زیرجلدی تحت تزریق مرفین سه بار در روز به ترتیب با دوزهای 50، 50 ...

[ 48 ] - بررسی اثر عصاره و فراکسیون‌های گیاه مهرخوش بر روی سندرم محرومیت از مرفین در موش

مقدمه: گیاه مهرخوش اثر ضددردی و ضدالتهاب آن به اثبات رسیده است. اثرات ضددردی این گیاه در روش صفحه داغ، توسط نالوکسان مهار شده است. هدف: با توجه به اثرات گیاه مهرخوش بر سیستم اوپیوییدی، تاثیر عصاره تام و فراکسیون‌های این گیاه بر روی سندرم محرومیت از مورفین در موش بررسی شد. روش بررسی: جهت ایجاد وابستگی، موش را به مدت سه روز تحت تزریق مورفین به صورت زیر‌جلدی سه بار در روز به ترتیب با دوز‌های mg/...

[ 49 ] - P152: Neurotoxicants and Mechanisms Neurodegenerative in Acrylamide

Many chemicals with broad industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural application produce a neurotoxic syndrome in humans and experimental animals involving weight loss, skeletal muscle weakness and ataxia. Neurotoxicity is defined as a structural change or a functional alteration of the nervous system resulting from exposure to a chemical, biological or physical agent. Neurotoxicity including ...

[ 50 ] - P 1: Effect of Clavulanic Acid on Trimethyltin-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12

Introduction: Trimethyltin (TMT) is a short-chain trialkyltin used as a stabilizer of plastics. It is also a known neurotoxic agent in both human and animals. Clavulanic acid is previously known as a non-competitive inhibitor of β-lactamase. Oral bioavailability, low antibiotic activity and good CNS penetration are important properties of CA which nominated this compound for evaluation neu...

[ 51 ] - P 33: Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Rosmarinic Acid on Inflammation Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) Model of Neuropathic Pain in Rats

Introduction: Rosemary, Rosmarinus (R.) officinalis L. is a well-known plant with several useful properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenerative. It has been used in folk medicine to alleviate rheumatic pain, stomachache and dysmenorrhea. Rosemary has several constituents such as rosmarinic acid which can be responsible for therapeutic properties been noted with rosem...

[ 52 ] - P 36: Protective Effects of Crocin on D-Galactose Induced Aging Model in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

Introduction: D-galactose (D-gal) is well known as an appropriate agent to induced aging effects in the in vivo and in vitro models. In the present study, we selected crocin, the main constituent of Crocus sativus L. (Saffron), against D-gal cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Materials and Methods:  Cells were pretreated with crocin (25-500 µM) for 24 h and then expos...

[ 53 ] - Chrysin Reduced Acrylamide-Induced Neurotoxicity in Both in vitro and in vivo Assessments

Background: Acrylamide (ACR) is a well-known industrial toxic chemical that produces neurotoxicity, which is characterized by progressive central and peripheral neuronal degeneration. Chrysin is a natural, biologically active flavonoid compound, which is commonly found in many plants. The antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of chrysin have been demonstrated. Methods: In this study, the ...

[ 54 ] - In vitro Evaluation of Methylxanthines and Some Antibiotics: Interaction against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Background: The development of resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major problem in chemotherapy. Finding agents which potentiate antimicrobial activity could be favorable. There are some reports that methylxanthines changed the inhibitory effect of antibacterial agents. Thus, possible synergistic effect of methylxanthines, aminophylline and caffeine on some antibiotics, carbenicillin, ceft...

[ 55 ] - مروری بر اثرات قلبی عروقی زعفران و مواد مؤثره آن

گیاه زعفران با نام علمی (L. <em>Crocus sativus</em>) از خانواده Iridaceae، دارای کاربردهای فراوانی در دنیا و به‌ویژه ایران می‌باشد. علاوه بر کاربرد آن به‌عنوان رنگ و اسانس، زعفران دارای خواص و کاربردهای دارویی و درمانی متعددی می باشد. کلاله زعفران حاوی بیش از 150 ماده شیمیایی بوده که از میان آنها کروسین، پیکروکروسین و سافرانال در ایجاد اثرات فارماکولوژیک زعفران نقش مهمتری دارند. اثرات مفید زعفر...

[ 56 ] - Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of crocin and safranal using potato disc and brine shrimp assays

Introduction: In this study, two constituents of saffron stigma (crocin and safranal) were tested for possible cytotoxic and antitumoral activity using brine shrimp and potato disc assays. Methods: In the brine shrimp assay, three wells containing 10 nauplii were tested for each concentration. After 24h, the number of the nauplii was counted. To investigate the antimicrobial activity of safr...

[ 57 ] - Effect of Nepeta glomerulosa Boiss. Aerial Parts Aqueous Extract on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice

      The effect of aqueous extract of <em>Nepata glomerulosa</em> Boiss. aerial parts on morphine withdrawal syndrome was investigated in mice. Dependence was induced by subcutaneous injections of morphine for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, morphine was injected 2 h prior to intraperitoneal injection of naloxone. The number of jumps during a 20 min. period after naloxone injection was considere...

[ 58 ] - A glance at black cumin(Nigella sativa) and its active constituent, thymoquinone, in ischemia: a review

Objective(s): Black cumin (Nigella sativa) belonging to Ranunculaceae family has a long history of medicinal use in various folk and traditional systems of medicine, including Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). These valuable medicinal seeds have been used traditionally against a variety of diseases such as dyspepsia, diabetes, headache, influenza and asthma. In addition, several scientific in...

[ 59 ] - Saffron (Crocus sativus) petal as a new pharmacological target: a review

Saffron petal is the main by-product of saffron processing which produced at high level but it is not applied and thrown out. Saffron petal is containing of several compounds such as mineral agents, anthocyanins, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids and kaempferol. As saffron petal is cheaper and produces in large amounts compared to saffron stigma, so, it can be considered as an appropriate sourc...

[ 60 ] - Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Crocus sativus (Saffron) and its main active constituents: A review

The medicinal uses of saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., have very long history in food coloring agent, and flavoring agent as well as traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Crocus sativus is rich in carotenoids that affect immunity. This review summarizes the putative immunoregulatory effects of saffron and its active its derivatives including crocin, croceti...

[ 61 ] - Effect of safranal, a constituent of saffron, on olanzapine (an atypical antipsychotic) induced metabolic disorders in rat

<em><strong>Objective(s):</strong></em> Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, causes weight gain and metabolic disorders in humans. Safranal, one of the active components of Crocus sativus (saffron), has been shown to have anti-obesity, lipid and blood pressure lowering and anti-diabetes effects. In this investigation, the effect of safranal on metabolic disorders induced by olanzapine was stu...

[ 62 ] - The effects of crocin on spatial memory impairment induced by hyoscine: Role of NMDA, AMPA, ERK, and CaMKII proteins in rat hippocampus

<em><strong>Objective(s):</strong></em> Crocus sativus L. and its active constituent, crocin, have neuroprotective effects. The effects of crocin on memory impairment have been mentioned in studies but the signaling pathways  have not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of crocin on the hyoscine-induced memory impairment in rat. Additionally, the level o...

[ 63 ] - The effects of Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) on metabolic syndrome: A review

Metabolic syndrome is described as a group of risk factors in which at least three unhealthy medical conditions, including obesity, high blood sugar, hypertension or dyslipidemia occur simultaneously in a patient. These conditions raise the risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Many recent studies have focused on herbal remedies and their pharmacological effects on metabolic s...

[ 64 ] - Effect of crocin, an active saffron constituent, on ethanol toxicity in the rat: histopathological and biochemical studies

<em><strong>Objective(s):</strong></em> The drinking of ethanol causes the wide range of clinical illness and morphological changes including hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. In the current study, the protective properties of crocin versus oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation induced by ethanol were assessed. <br /><em><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> </em>The male Wistar rats ...

[ 65 ] - Looking for immortality: Review of phytotherapy for stem cell senescence

<em><strong>Objective(s):</strong></em> In this paper, we discussed natural agents with protective effects against stem cell senescence. Different complications have been observed due to stem cell senescence and the most important of them is “Aging”. Senescent cells have not normal function and their secretary inflammatory factors induce chronic inflammation in body which causes different patho...

[ 66 ] - Effect of Topiramate on Morphine-induced Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) in Rats: Role of ERK and CREB Proteins in Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex

In this study, the effect of topiramate, as an antiepileptic drug, was evaluated on morphine craving in rats. The conditioned place preference (CPP) test was used for this purpose. Repeated administration of morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days) induced significant CPP. Administration of topiramate (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days) with each morphine administration decreased the acquisition of...

[ 67 ] - Effect of Topiramate on Morphine-induced Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) in Rats: Role of ERK and CREB Proteins in Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex

In this study, the effect of topiramate, as an antiepileptic drug, was evaluated on morphine craving in rats. The conditioned place preference (CPP) test was used for this purpose. Repeated administration of morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days) induced significant CPP. Administration of topiramate (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days) with each morphine administration decreased the acquisition of...